Blood and Oxygen

  1. lymphatic system
    • returns fluid that leaks out in the capillary beds
    • aids in body defense
    • lymphatic system drains into the veins of the neck (it is partially part of the circulatory system in this way)
  2. lymph does what?
    reenters the circulation directly at the venous end of the capillary bed and directly through the lymphatic system
  3. what does blood consist of?
    • several kinds of cells suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma
    • these cellular elements occupy about 45% of the volume of blood
  4. Blood plasma is about what % water?
  5. what are electrolytes?
    inorganic salts in the form of dissolved ions in blood
  6. what do plasma proteins influence in blood? (3 things) what are the 3 functions?
    • (solutes) that influence blood pH, osmotic pressure, and viscosity
    • various plasma proteins function in lipid transport, immunity, and blood clotting
  7. what are the two types of cells in blood plasma?
    RBC's and WBC's
  8. name for RBC's and what do they transfer?
    erythrocytes and they transport oxygen
  9. name of WBC's and their function
    leukocytes and function in defense
  10. there is a third cellular element in blood plasma, what is it and what is it's function?
    platelets, fragments of cells involved in clotting
  11. which are there more of in the body, RBC or WBC?
    Red blood cells
  12. what is hemoglobin?
    • iron-containing protein that transports oxygen
    • red blood cells have hemoglobin, each cell containing up to 270 million hemoglobin molecules
  13. where are RBCs made?
    in bone marrow by erythropoiesis
  14. what is the process of making RBCs
    • takes 7 days to go from stem cell to maturity
    • cells lose nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum¬†
    • hormone EPO can be released
    • live for 100-120 days
    • then macrophages consume them when they are done in the spleen and the liver
  15. what does the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) do?
    stimulates erythrocyte production when oxygen delivery is low
  16. what are the 5 major types of white blood cells?
    • monocytes
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
    • lymphocytes
  17. how do WBCs function? and where are they found?
    • function in defense by phagocytizing bacteria and debris or by producing antibodies
    • found both in and outside of the circulatory system
  18. what are platelets?
    fragments of specialized bone marrow cells and function in blood clotting
  19. when does the clotting mechanism begin?
    when the endothelium of a blood vessel is damaged
  20. fibrinogen converts to what? this forms a what?
    fibrin, it forms a clot
  21. what is a thrombus?
    a blood clot formed within a blood vessel, it can block blood flow
  22. Image Upload 1
  23. what is hemophilia?
    • when your blood does not clot
    • it is a genetic mutation for coding a protein clotting factor
  24. Image Upload 2
  25. what is atherosclerosis caused by?
    caused by the buildup of plaque deposits within arteries
  26. what is the death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage of one or more coronary arteries?
    myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  27. what is the death of nervous tissue in the brain, resulting from rupture or blockage of arteries in the head?
  28. o2 what and co2 what?
    o2 in and co2 out
  29. in a given volume, is there more o2 in air or water?
  30. animals require what kind of surfaces for gas exchange?
    • large, moist respiratory surfaces
    • gas exchange across respiratory surfaces takes place by diffusion
  31. what are the 5 ways animals can conduct gas exchange?
    outer surface, skin, gills, trachea and lungs
  32. in mammalian lungs, air inhaled by the nostrils passes through the pharynx via what 5 things where gas exchange occurs by diffusion?
    the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
  33. exhaled air passes over what to create sounds?
    vocal cords
  34. what coats the surface of the alveoli
  35. the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles do what to incoming air?
    clean and warm it
  36. right lung has how many lobes? left?
    right 3 left 2
  37. what are the 2 phases of breathing?
    inspiration and expiration
  38. negative pressure breathing occurs with what?
    • the contraction of the diaphragm and relaxation of intercostal muscles
    • air flows into the lungs along the pressure gradient
    • exhaling occurs with the relaxation of the diaphragm
  39. Image Upload 3
  40. what are respiratory pigments?
    • proteins that transport oxygen
    • they greatly increase the amount of oxygen that blood can carry
  41. what do arthropods, vulcans and many molluscs use as their oxygen binding component?
    hemocyanin with copper
  42. Image Upload 4
  43. hemoglobin also helps in the transport of what?
    co2 and assists in buffering
  44. co2 from respiring cells diffuses into the blood and is transported either in what 3 ways
    • in blood plasma
    • bound to hemoglobin
    • or as bicarbonate ions
Card Set
Blood and Oxygen
Test 4