Silvestri-Fluids and Electrolytes

  1. What is the normal adult level of calcium?
    8.6 to 10 mg/dL
  2. What is the normal adult level of magnesium?
    1.6 to 2.6 mg/dL
  3. What is the normal adult level of potassium?
    3.5 to 5.1 mEq/L
  4. What is the normal adult level of phosphorus?
    2.7 to 4.5 mg/dL
  5. What is the normal adult level of sodium?
    135 to 145 mEq/dL
  6. Where is magnesium concentrated?
    • Bone
    • Cartilage
    • Within the cells
  7. Where is potassium concentrated?
    Within the cells
  8. What are phosphorus levels evaluated in relation to and why?
    Calcium levels, because they have an inverse relationship
  9. Intravascular compartment def?
    Refers to fluid inside a blood vessel
  10. Intracellular compartment def?
    Refers to all fluids inside the cell
  11. Extracellular compartment def?
    Refers to all fluid outside the cell, which includes interstitial fluid, blood, lymph, bone, connective tissue, water, and transcellular fluid
  12. Interstitial fluid def?
    Fluid between the cells
  13. Who is at highest risk for fluid related problems?
    Infants and older adults
  14. Diffusion def?
    The process whereby a solute (substance that is dissolved) may spread through a solution or solvent (solution in which the solute is dissolved)
  15. Osmotic pressure def?
    The force that draws a solvent from a less concentrated solute through a selectively permeable membrane  into a more concentrated solute, thus tending to equalize the concentration of the solvent.
  16. Osmosis def?
    The movement of solvent molecules  across a membrane in response to a concentration gradient
  17. Filtration def?
    The movement of solutes and solvents by hydrostatic pressure
  18. Hydrostatic pressure def?
    The force exerted by the weight of a solution
  19. Osmolality def?
    The concentration of a solution
  20. What is the normal osmolality of plasma?
    270-300 milliosmoles/kilogram (mOsm/kg) water
  21. What happens to fluids and electrolytes in diarrhea?
    More electrolytes than fluid are lost which results in the extracellular fluid containing less electrolytes than the intracellular fluid
  22. Isotonic solution def?
    Has the same osmolality as body fluids (human cells)
  23. Isotonic solutions?
    • NS (0.9% sodium chloride)
    • D5W (dextrose in water)
    • D5W/1/4NS (dextrose in 0.225% saline)
    • LR (lactated ringer's
  24. Hypotonic solution def?
    Has a lower osmolality than human cells
  25. Hypotonic solutions?
    • 1/2NS (0.45% sodium chloride)
    • 1/4NS (0.225% sodium chloride)
    • 1/3NS (0.33% sodium chloride)
  26. Hypertonic solution def?
    Has a higher osmolality than human cells
  27. Hypertonic solutions?
    • 3%NS
    • 5%NS
    • D10W (10% dextrose in water)
    • D5W/NS (5% dextrose in NS)
    • D5W/1/2NS (5% dextrose in 1/2NS)
    • D5LR (5% dextrose in lactated ringer's)
  28. Insensible water loss def?
    Water than is lost through the skin and air expired from the lungs
  29. What happens to the large volume of electrolyte containing liquids that move into the GI tract?
    They return again into the extracellular fluid
Card Set
Silvestri-Fluids and Electrolytes
Fluids and Electrolytes