1. I.                   The Diplomatic Revoluton (1933-1936)
    • a.      when Hitler became chancellor of Germany on Jan 30, 1933, Germany was weak due to Versailles (demilitarized wth French taking over industry if war ensued)
    •                                                               i.      smaller states had defensive treaties
    •                                                             ii.      treaty limited Germany’s army to 100,000 troops with no air and limited naval forces
  2. Advantages
    a.      Advantages: most populous after Soviet Union with great industrial capacity; aware that Brits and France didn’t want war; France was a threat, but if he could hinder them, he could ignrore restrictions of Versailles
  3. Ability
    • a.      Hitler’s ability to rearm Germany and fulfill his expansionist policies depended on whether he could feign peace
    • he said Hitler emphasized that Germany wanted revision of treaty and give Germany place among other states
  4. First two years
    • 1.      during first two years in office, he pursued foreign policy without unnecessary risks
    • 2.      dramatic action of withdrawing Germany from Geneva Disarmament Conference and the League of Natiosn, was domestic and poltical (give Germans sense of independence from dominance of European states)
  5. German reaarmament
    •                                                               i.      Beginning of 1935: Hitler wanted to break provisions of treaty without opposition from France and Brits since neither wanted to use force
    • 1.      he announced Germany’s military rearmament on March 9, 1935, where he announced the creation of a new air force and introduced a military draft (100kà550k)
  6. France, Brits, and Italy
    •                                                               i.      France, Brits, and Italy reacted quickly and warned them without concrete threats
    • 1.      Brits even moved toward open acceptance of this in the Anglo-German Naval Pact on June 18, 1935
    • a.      treaty allowed Germans to build a navy that would be 35% in size of British navy, with equal # of subs
  7. appeasement
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Brits started policy of appeasement, based on belief that if European states satisfied the reasonable demands of dissatisfied powers, the latter would be content, and stability would ensue
    • 1.      British appeasement was due to Brit’s desire to avoid another war, but it was fostered by British statesmen who believed that Nazs offered powerful bulwark against Soviets
  8. Rhineladn
                                                                  i.      Hitler (Mar 7, 1936) believed that Western democracies weren’t going to use force; so, he sent troops into demilitarized Rhineland, which Versailles said htat French could use force against
  9. France and Brit
    • 1.      France wouldn’t act without Brit support, and Brits saw it as reasonable
    • a.      this reinforced Hitler’s belief that they were weak and he was superior
  10. New alliances
    •                                                               i.      Oct 1935: Mussolini commited Fascist Italy to imperial expansion by invading Ethipia and welcomed Hitler’s support after French and Brit opposiotion
    •                                                             ii.      Joint intervention of Germany and Italy on behalf of General Francisco Franco in Spanish Civil War in 1936 drew the two closer
  11. Oct 1936
                                                                  i.      Oct 1936: Mussolini and Hitler came to agreement that recognized their common political and economic interestsà Mussolini called it the new Rome-Berlin Axis
  12. November 1936
    •                                                               i.      November 1936: Germany and Japan- Anti-Comintern Pact: maintain common front against communism
    •                                                             ii.      End of 1936, Hitler and Nazis ahd diplomatic revolution
    • 1.      Treaty of Versailles pointless with Germany as world power
  13. Hilter used
    •                                                               i.      Hitler used tactic of peaceful revision and legality for power
    • 1.      power increasedàHitler believed htat, since they avoided war when Germany was weak, they would hate it now since its strong
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