1. Zoonotic disease = ?
    primarily a disease of animals, not humans
  2. Disease triangle (Plague) - Host:
    many animals species. major epidemics related to rats.
  3. Disease triangle (Plague) - Vector:
    • fleas. interation w/flea:
    • feeds on rat w/ high bacteria count, blocking gut, flea continues to pump,
    • in new wounds of new host
    • transmitted in frass
  4. Disease triangle (Plague) - Pathogen:
    • bateria Yersnia pestis.
    • causes disease (plague, black death).
    • untreated disease = septicemic plague
    • lead to infection of lungs = pneumonic plague
  5. 'dance macabre' (Plague)
    intoxication of the nervous system leading to bizarre, erratic movements
  6. children song about (plague)?
    "Ring around the rosey"
  7. etymology: (order mecoptera)
    have long slender wings
  8. common name: (order mecoptera)
    scorpion flies
  9. characters (order mecoptera)
    • adult head with elongated clypeus giving the head a beak.
    • membranous wings.
  10. habits : (order mecoptera)
    • weak fliers
    • feed on dead arthropods (necrophagous)
    • fungi (fungivorous) or predators
    • special mating behavior of nuptial gifts
  11. Etymology: (order trichoptera)
    wings covered with hair-like setae
  12. common name: (order trichoptera)
  13. characters: (order trichoptera)
    adults have four hairy wings that are held roof-like over back, with chewing mouthparts
  14. habits: (order trichoptera)
    • weak fliers
    • feed on liquids
    • adominal gills
    • live in cold clean water for one year
    • larvae ominivorous (alge)
    • indicator species
  15. Three basic types: (order trichoptera)
    • net-spinners,
    • case-builders
    • free-living species
  16. etymology: (order diptera)
    adults have 2 wings
  17. common name: (order diptera)
  18. characters: (order diptera)
    • 1 pair of membranous wings.
    • hindwings modified = halteres functions to balance fly
    • mouthparts varied and specialized for liquid diet
  19. characters (order diptera)

  20. characters (order diptera)

  21. characters (order diptera)

  22. characters (order diptera)

    larvae in some but most are maggots
  23. characters (order diptera)

    • no legs
    • 2 caudal spiracles.
    • mandibles modified in hooks
  24. Puparium

    (order diptera)
    pupae in cocoon
  25. habits: (order diptera)
    • excellent flyers.
    • feed on fluids
    • lay eggs in larvae food
  26. habits (order diptera)

    • herbivores, fungivores
    • predators - eat decaying matter (dung, dead flesh)
    • parasitoids
    • ectoparasites
    • endoparasites of vertebrates
  27. Tsetse fly is:

    (order diptera)
  28. Myiasis =

    (order diptera)
    when animals are infested with fly maggots
  29. family culicidae (mosquitoes)

    • eggs laid in water, larvae and pupae aquatic
    • breath through anal tubes
  30. family culicidae (mosquitoes)

    • terrestrial
    • males eat nectar
    • females are blood feeders
  31. family culicidae (mosquitoes)

    Disease vector =
    close relationship between insect and pathrogen
  32. family culicidae (mosquitoes)

    malaria ( protozoan ):
    • understand disease cycle,
    • dengue (virus)
    • filariasis (nematode) causes elephantitis
    • yellow fever (virus)
  33. family simuliidae (black flies)

    • awuatic
    • hand on to siklken net on rocks
  34. family simuliidae (black flies)

    • hang around fresh water
    • females are terrible biters (cutting-sponging)
    • can build huge numbers.
  35. family simuliidae (black flies)

    • vector of onchocerciasis (river blindness_
    • nematode that attacks optic nerve
    • now under control
  36. family tabanidae (Horse and deer flies)
    • Pests of livestock.
    • severe biters (cutting sponging)
    • disease: vector of bacteria that cause tularemia (pseudoplague) and anthrax.
  37. family muscidae (house flies)

    larvae in dunb, rotting garbage
  38. family muscidae (house flies)

    • (aka musca domestica)
    • feed on bacterial ooze and rotting material
    • with sponging mouthparts
    • F/M feed on blood
    • tsetse fly is viviparous (female lays living larvae that pupate shortly after they are born
  39. family muscidae (house flies)

    • Disease transmitters = Not vectors
    • pick up bacteria on tarshi
    • mouthparts and transmit to humans
    • Salmonella, cholera, typhus, dysentery.
    • sleeping sickness in humans, nagana in cattle
  40. family calliphoridae ( blow flies)

    usually metallic blue or green
  41. family calliphoridae ( blow flies)

    • feed on carrion, manure,
    • living flesh (myiasis) both in animals and humans
  42. family calliphoridae ( blow flies)

    controlled with sterile insect technique (SIT)
  43. family calliphoridae ( blow flies)

    • used in medical treatment to clean necrotic tissue from wounds (= maggot therapy)
    • used in forensic entomology (homoicide investigations)
    • to determine how long a person has been dead and if the body has been moved.
  44. family tephritidae (fruit flies)
    • agricultural pests
    • patterned wings
    • eggs laid in fruit, maggots eat inside
    • contains the mediterranean fruit fly (medfly)
    • Use SIT for control.
  45. Etymology:
    (order hymenoptera)
    membranous wings
  46. common name:
    (order hymenoptera)
    • sawflies
    • wasps
    • bees
    • ants
  47. characters:
    (order hymenoptera)
    • two membranous wings
    • hindwing smaller than forewing
    • good flyers
    • (hamuli hooks) on hind wings that hold wings together
  48. suborder symphyta = sawflies

    (order hymenoptera)
    • abdomen and thorax broadly joined
    • ovipositor saw-like or needle-like for ovipositing in plants
    • larvae are herbivores
    • feed in groups = gregarious
  49. suborde apocrita = wasps , bees, ants

    (order hymenoptera)
    • first abdominal segment fused with metathorax and also constriced ("narrow waist")
    • called petiole
    • female ovipositor modified for pre or stinging
    • mouthpars chewing or modified for nectar feeding.
  50. parasite
    • lives of a single host without killing host
    • multiple attacks can be fatal
  51. parasioid
    special type of parasite that lives on a single host, killing it.
  52. predator
    animal that kills more than 1 host in its lifetime.
  53. parastic wasps
    (Apocrita group)
    • parasites and parasitoids
    • used in biological control (of thrips, aphids, whiteflies, leps)
  54. solitary wasps (Apocrita group)
    • predators
    • females provided paralyzed prey (fresh insects) for solitary offspring
    • ground and aerial nest (made out of mud)
  55. solitary bees
    (Apocrita group)
    • herbivores feeding on pollen and nectar
    • have plumose hairs for collecting pollen
    • females provide pollen and nectar for their solitary offspings
    • nest in wood (carpenter bees)
    • ground
  56. social wasp

    (Apocrita group)
    • predator
    • females provide paralyzed prey
    • cut-up pieces to their offspring
    • aerial nests of mud or paper
    • caste system: dominant females, workers, males
  57. social hornets or yellowjackets
    (Apocrita group)
    • queen is larger than her daughters
    • large insects with a nasty sting
  58. social bees -
    Bumble bees =

    (Apocrita group)
    caste system: queen, workers, males
  59. social bees -

    honey bees =
    (Apocrita group)
    • caste system: queen workers, drones
    • use trophylaxis to pass chemicals through food and quality of food source
    • when honey bees sting, leave stinger, gland, muscles in skin
  60. Africanized honey bee =

    social bees
    (Apocrita group)
    • killer bee
    • venom is less toxic than domestic bees
    • but one AHB sting initiates more sting.
    • kill by massive numbers of stings
    • if attacked, RUN
  61. Ants
    (Apocrita group)
    • most advanced social structure of all insects
    • caste = reproductives, queen minor workers, major workers
    • red imported fire an is a nasty one!
  62. family mutillidae =
    velvet ants
  63. family specidae =
    tarantula hawks
  64. etmology:
    (order coleoptera)
    front wing provides sheath around membranous hind wings and abdomen
  65. common name
    (order coleoptera)
  66. characters:
    (order coleoptera)
    • hard forewing (elytra)
    • well-developed pronontum
    • chewing mouthparts
  67. habits:
    (order coleoptera)
    • largest order (40%) in the insecta
    • terrestrial and aquatic and feeding habits
    • most are herbivoroous (including all plant parts)
    • some are fungivorous, scavengers, detritivorousm dung feeders ( coprophagous
  68. ground beetles (family carabidae)
    • mostly black color, shiny with long legs
    • bombardier beetle
    • direct a very hot, noxious chemical from end of their abdomen
  69. darkling beetles (family tenebrionidae)
    • eleodes = emits noxious checmical from abdomen
    • mice eat by shoving abdomen into ground
  70. click beetles (family tenebrionidae)
    • pronotum extends back into points on both sides, specialized structure on the ventral surface of the body
    • allows it to "click"
    • thin larvae called wire worms, can be crop pests
  71. scarab beetles (family scarabeidae)
    • stout, heavy beetles (june beetles, dung, elephant beetle, rhinoceros beetle)
    • omnivorous
    • larvae are white grubs ('C' Shaped) in soil
    • Egyptian times as gods.
  72. ladybird beetles (family coccinellidae)
    • M/F named ladybird beetles
    • spots not related to sex but to species.
    • excellent predators used in agriculture for biological control
    • aggregation pheromones
  73. tiger beetles (family cicindellidae)
    • big eyes
    • slender legs
    • fast, fierce predator
    • dr perrings faviorte insect
  74. predaceous diving beetle (family dyticidae)
    • aquatic beetles breatrh with plastron
    • predators
  75. leaf beetles (family chrysomelidae)
    • antennae long
    • larvae bore wood
    • eucalyptus long-horned borer
  76. snout beetles, veevils
    (family curculionidae)
    • beetles have long snout with mandibles at tip.
    • largest and most economically important family of insects
    • ag pests
  77. blister beetles
    (family meloidae)
    • board head and abdomen, narrow thorax
    • elytra loosely cover abdomen and often are short,
    • exposing part of abdomen
    • produce cantharadin which causes blisters,
    • "spanish fly"
  78. fireflies (family lampyridae)
    • predators
    • light producing organ in abdomen
    • elaborate courtship behavior using light flashes.
    • photuris - females attract Photinus - males to eat them = "femme fatale"
  79. etymology:
    (order strepsiptera)
    • front wing is club-shaped
    • giving appearance of a twisted up wing
  80. common name:
    (order strepsiptera)
    twisted-winged parasites
  81. charcters:
    (order strepsiptera)
    • tiny insects
    • females: without wings eyes antennae head and thorax fused into cephalothorax
    • males: normal body, antennae eyes with forewings club like
    • hindwings are fan-shaped, and functional for flight
  82. habits:
    (order strepsiptera)
    • endoparasitic (internal parasite) of other insects
    • females parasitic throughout life
    • never leaving host body
  83. (order strepsiptera)

    • sperm is transferred through a "brood passage"
    • eggs mature inside female and hatch as larvae = ovovivipary
    • six-legged larvae = triungulin exit through brood passage to outside of
    • host.
  84. etymology:
    (order lepidoptera)
    wings covered with scales
  85. common name:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • butter flies
    • moths
    • skippers
  86. characters:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • adults 2 pair membranous wings, covered with scales (modified setae)
    • colored by pigments or structral
    • wings held together by overlap - frenulum and hook, or by jugum.
  87. habits:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • nearly all phytophagous ( a few parasitic and predaceous)
    • moths and skippers active at night
    • butterlifes active at day
  88. larvae:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • larvae feeding machines (walking intestine)
    • adults reproducing machine (flying ovaries and testes)
  89. larval feeding ecology:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • most have narrow host range
    • edges of leaves, pit feeders, skeletonizer, leaf miners, stem and wood borers
  90. adaptations to avoid being eaten by predators:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • hide themselves in plant tissue or "tents"
    • crypsis
    • chemical defenses
    • irritating hairs
  91. mate finding:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • territories
    • active searching
    • sight
    • pheromones
  92. long distance migration:
    (order lepidoptera)
    not same individuals who migrated prior season
  93. brush-footed butterflies
    (family nymphalidae)
    • largest family or butterflies
    • common in riverside (painted lady)
  94. milkweed butterflies, includes monarch and queens
    (family danaidae)
    • monarch migration
    • prime example of mimicry
  95. hawk moths, sphinx moths
    (family sphingidae)
    • large heavy body moths
    • mistaken for hummingbirds
    • hornworms
  96. giant silkworms moths
    (family saturniidae
    larges NA mothslarvae with stinging hairs
  97. swallowtails
    (family papillionidae)
    • adults are large brightly colored butterflies
    • larvae with eversible osmeterium
  98. silkworms moths
    (family bombycidae)
    contains species taht produces silk
  99. clearwing moths
    (family sesiidae)
    • wing areas without scales
    • resemble wasps
  100. armyworms, bollworms, cutworms
    (family noctuidae)
    • gray
    • nondescript moths
    • nocturnal
    • severe ag pests
  101. inch-worm moths
    (family geometridae)
    • larvae slender
    • "loop" when they walk
    • commonly caled inchworms
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