week 11

  1. afterload
    the tension developed by the heart during contraction; it is an important determinant of myocardial energy consumption, as it represents the resistance against which the ventricle must pump and indicates how much effort the ventricles must put forth to force blood into the systemic circulation. Factors that increase afterload include aortic and pulmonarystenosis, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and high peripheral resistance
  2. anasarca
    generalized massive edema.
  3. aneurysm
    A localized, blood-filled dilation of a blood vessel caused by disease or weakening of the vessel wall.

  4. angioplasty
    a procedure used to widen vessels narrowed by stenoses or occlusions
  5. anoxia
    a condition characterized by an absence of oxygen supply to an organ or a tissue
  6. atherectomy
    a non-surgical procedure to open blocked coronary arteries or vein grafts by using a device on the end of a catheter to cut or shave away atherosclerotic plaque
  7. atheroma
    A deposit or degenerative accumulation of lipid-containing plaques on the innermost layer of the wall of an artery
  8. atrial tachycardia
    a rapid cardiac rate, usually 160–190 per minute, originating from an atrial locus.
  9. cardiac decompensation
    a condition of congestive heart failure in which the heart is unable to ensure adequate cellular perfusion in all parts of the body without assistance. Causes may include myocardial infarction, increased workload, infection, toxins, or defective heart valves.
  10. commissurotomy
    the surgical division of a fibrous band or ring connecting corresponding parts of a body structure. A commissurotomy is commonly performed to separate the thickened, adherent leaves of a stenosed mitral valve
  11. diastole
    the period between contractions of the atria or the ventricles during which blood enters the relaxed chambers from the systemic circulation and the lungs. Ventricular diastole begins with the onset of the second heart sound and ends with the first heart sound
  12. endocarditis
    infection of endocardium, the inner lining of the heart muscle, which also covers the heart valves
  13. epicarditis
    infection of epicarditis, the outermost of the three layers of tissue that form the heart wall
  14. hypoxia
    reduction of oxygen supply to a tissue below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood
  15. infarction
    occurring during the period when circulation to a region of the heart is obstructed and necrosis is occurring.
  16. ischemia
    an insufficient supply of blood to an organ, usually due to a blocked artery.
  17. junctional rhythm
  18. mitral insufficiency
    defective functioning of the mitral valve, with incomplete closure causing mitral regurgitation.
  19. orthopnea
    dyspnea that is relieved in the upright position
  20. paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
  21. pericarditis
    • –An inflammation of the visceral and/or
    • parietal pericardium

    • –May result in cardiac compression, ¯ LV
    • filling and emptying, and cardiac failure

    –Pericardial friction rub
  22. peripheral vascular resistance
    a resistance to the flow of blood determined by the tone of the vascular musculature and the diameter of the blood vessels. It is responsible for blood pressure when coupled with stroke volume.
  23. preload
    a resistance to the flow of blood determined by the tone of the vascular musculature and the diameter of the blood vessels. It is responsible for blood pressure when coupled with stroke volume.
  24. pulse deficit
    the difference between the heart rate and the pulse rate in atrial fibrillation.
  25. pulse pressure
    the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures.
  26. systole
    the contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially of the ventricles
  27. venous pressure
    the pressure of blood in the veins
  28. ventricular standstill
    cessation of ventricular contractions, marked by absence of ventricular complexes in the electrocardiogram.
  29. ventricular tachycardia
    a rapid heart beat that originates in one of the lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart.
  30. ventricular aneurysm
    • –Results when the infarcted
    • myocardial wall becomes thinned and bulges outward during contraction

    –Ventricular rupture
  31. Papillary muscle dysfunction
    rupture of heart structures caused by necrosis of tissue

    –Causes mitral valve regurgitation

    • –This condition aggravates an already
    • compromised left ventricle
  32. Dressler syndrome
    –Characterized by pericarditis with pericardial effusion and fever that develops 4 to 6 weeks after MI

    –An antigen-antibody reaction to the necrotic myocardium
  33. CK-MB
    found in the _myocardium –most specific to cardiac muscle
  34. Serum troponin levels
    • have a greater sensitivity & specificity in detecting myocardial injury. They show myocardial damage quicker than CK levels
    • •Three forms of Troponin (I, T and C) each with several isoforms

    •Troponin C is found in some skeletal muscles and is therefore not diagnositic of heart damage.

    •Troponin T is most strongly predictive of mortality following MI (the higher the Troponin T, the greater the chance of death within 30 days).
  35. cardiogenic shock
    • Occurs when inadequate O2 & nutrients are supplied to the tissues b/c of severe LV failure
    • • If more that 40% of the LV is damaged circulatory collapse progresses rapidly
    • • Decreased B/P, pulses, shallow respirations, altered LOC, restless, clammy skin, decreased UO, EKG changes
Card Set
week 11
nursing vocabulary