1. pica or geophagy
    • eating of non-nutritive substances
    • ex. clay, dirt
    • iron defficency
  2. myoglobin
    transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to the muscles . gives red color
  3. osteoporosis
    • lack of calcium, pours bones
    • alcohol, smoking, and lack of exercise makes it worse
  4. electrolytes
    • help to regulate body water balance
    • Sodium, potassium, and chlorine
  5. sodium free
    refers to food products containing less than 5mg per serving
  6. Edema
    fluids accumulate outside of cell walls. due to sodium deficiency
  7. osmotic pressure
    the force that moves the water in to a space where a solute is more concentrated
  8. goiter
    • enlarged thyroid gland
    • iodide deficiency
  9. mottling
    brown spotting on teeth
  10. oxalates
    kale, rubarb, chocolate, strawberrys
  11. phytates
    grains, oats, rice,
  12. what interferes with absorption of Zinc
    oxalates and phytates
  13. list 3 minerals used in nerve muscle function
    sodium, potassium, chlorine
  14. heart  failure my result from a deficiency of?
    magnesium, selenium, potassium
  15. physical weakness, lack of energy and apathy may be the result of a deficiency of
    iron, copper, and iodine
  16. the minerals found in high concentration in extracellular fluids are
    sodium and chloride
  17. the mineral found in high concentration in intracellular fluids are
  18. what is the mineral least likely to be deficient in anyone's diet
  19. list the 3 minerals that are most apt to be deficient in the American diet
    iron, calcium, zinc
  20. list the first 4 most abundant minerals found in the body
    calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur
  21. what mineral is important for bone formation and mitochondrial function
  22. worldwide, the most common nutrient deficiency is
  23. which of the following in the best sports drink
  24. diets deficient in minerals cause slow and stunted growth and decrease the ability to do physical work.
  25. which mineral is considered to be an antioxidant
  26. list the 3 minerals that are considered environmental toxicants
    mercury, cadmium, lead
  27. toxic amounts of _________ can cause mental retardation in children
  28. air travelers should ______ fluid intake because of the rapid circulation of the plains ventilation system may produce large losses of water through the skin.
  29. water balance in the body is maintained by balancing ______ outside the cell and  ______ inside the cell.
    sodium, potassium
  30. pharmacologists consider 250mg of caffeine a large amount. this amount would be found in __ cups of brewed coffee.
  31. potassium major sources
    oranges, bananas
  32. iron major sources
    red lean meat, liver, peanut butter, dried beans, egg yolks
  33. iodine major sources
    seafood, iodized salt
  34. fluoride major sources
    fluoridated water, tooth paste
  35. calcium major sources
    dairy products
  36. cobalt major sources
    protein sources only (vitamin B12 only)
  37. sodium major sources
    salt, soy sauce, processed foods
  38. zinc major sources
    meats, whole grains, legumes, green leaves
  39. selenium major sources
    liver, meats, grains
  40. zinc deficiency
    lack of sexual development
  41. potassium deficiency
    heart failure
  42. fluoride deficiency
    dental caries
  43. iodine deficiency
    cretinism, mental retardation, goiter
  44. iron deficiency
    weakness, lassitude, anemia
  45. water deficiency
    dehydration and decreased physical performance
  46. selenium deficiency
    heart disease (cardiomyopathy), keshan disease
  47. magnesium deficiency
    uncontrollable muscle twitching and convulsions
  48. calcium deficiency
  49. magnesium major function
    synthesis and breakdown of energy nutrients and relaxes nerve impulses and muscle contraction
  50. iron major function
    bringing oxygen to the cell to liberate energy
  51. zinc major function
    essential for protein synthesis and growth and healing of wounds
  52. iodine major function
    regulates metabolism
  53. sulfur major function
    maintains the 3 dimensional structure of proteins, the proper function of enzymes and the ridged structure of hair, nails, and skin
  54. phosphorus major function
    DNA, necessary fro energy release/transfer, phospholipids in cell membranes, coenzyme function
  55. chromium major function
    glucose metabolism
  56. copper major function
    heals wounds, helps make elastin, protect nerve fibers, helps prevent anemia, part of many enzymes, involved in protein and iron metabolism
  57. manganese major function
    helps enzymes metabolize energy nutrients and clotting of blood
  58. molybdenum major function
    helps with activity of various enzymes and components of enamel of teeth
  59. water major function
    acts as lubricant, acts as a solvent, regulates temperature, shock absorber
  60. iron toxicity
    liver damage and heart failure
  61. sodium toxicity
    hypertension leading to heart disease
  62. iodine toxicity
    hyperthyroidism, decreased thyroid activity, enlarged thyroid gland
  63. water toxicity
    headache, vomiting, abdominal cramps, circulatory failure, and death
  64. potassium toxicity
  65. fluoride toxicity
    mottling or brown spotting on teeth
  66. lead toxicity
    mental retardation in children
  67. 2 fluid compartments
    • intracellular 60-70%
    • extracellular 25-40%
Card Set