genetic, biological, cognitive, developmental, and social aspects
If two people have the same disorder will they be the same?
No, a disorder can look different in on individual to another because of the factors
map of all the interactions between a proteins in a cell
clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual that is associated with present distress, disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom
the study of psychological disorders
What does the prefix "ab" mean in latin?
What does the "norma" mean in latin?
Abnormal behavior (statistical definition)
behavior that is not typical, usual or regular (this is a statistical definition of abnormality)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
a handbook for diagnosis that was first published by the American Psychiatric Association in 1952
What is the IQ score that is the typical cutoff for identifying an individual with mental retardation?
score of 70 or below
To diagnose an individual with mental retardation they must have difficulty with?
adaptive skills such as communication, self-care, safety, and use of community resources
Psychological Disorders are on a continuum, True or False?
What is a drawback of statistical approach?
cultural specificity, failure to capture distress accompanied by the disorder (for both the person with the disorder and those interacting with that person)
unusual, distressing, and harmful to self or others
more than one disorder occurs at the same time
Percentage of people who experience a disorder at least once in their life?
Percentage of people who experience a psychological disorder during the previous year?
Students in college have the same rate of psychological disorders as their peers who are not attending college, True or False?
How are psychological disorders diagnosed?
on the basis of observable behaviors
The current edition for the DSM is?
DSM-IV-text revision or DSM-IV-TR (2000)
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10)
second classification system that is widely used published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1992
What are the main 3 disorders that are considered as "false epidemics" in the DSM-IV?
attention deficit disorder, autism, and childhood bipolar disorder
2 major approaches to disorders
biological and psychological approach
a disorder that produces unrealistic and counterproductive levels of anxiety. Anxiety occurs when we are worried about the future.
2 major components of anxiety
strong negative emotions and physical tension due to the anticipation of danger
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
a person experiences excessive anxiety and worry for 6 months that is not correlated with particular objects or situations
What are the usual symptoms of GAD?
headache, muscle tension, stomachache. GAD is usually comorbid
intense fear and autonomic arousal in the absence of a real threat
repeated panic attacks and fear of future attacks
What is the difference of GAD and a panic disorder?
Anxiety (GAD) is more related to distant threats while panic is associated to nearby, imminent threats
People with panic disorders have larger quantities of what chemical messengers?
Panic increase the levels of the stress hormone cortisol, True or False?
Explanation of panic disorders
biological predisposition (orexin systems of the brain), exposed to social stressors (such as parental loss or separation), interpretation of physical symptoms of arousal as threatening or embarrassing, cognition leading to panic that are modulated by his/her cultural expectations
unrealistic fear of an object or situation
In the DSM-IV phobia is divided into what 3 catergories?
agoraphobia, social phobia, and specific phobia
is the fear of open spaces, being outside of the home alone, or being in a crowd. Often prevents working or engaging in normal social activities
(renamed as social anxiety disorder in DSM-5) fear of being scrutinized and criticized by others particularly in public speaking and meeting new people
fears of objects or situations other than those associated with agoraphobia and social phobia usually arises from classical conditioning
Which phobia is a common outcome of a panic disorder?
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
individuals are haunted by distressing, intrusive thoughts obsessions and compulsions
distressing and intrusive thoughts
repetitive and ritualistic behaviors
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
formerly known as "shell shock" or "battle fatigue". disorder caused by trauma which leads to flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, hyper vigilance, and avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event
Biological explanation for PTSD
hippocampus which could signal a vulnerability to PTSD
What are the two major categories of mood disorders?
major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder
Major depressive disorder (unipolar disorder)
lengthy, uninterrupted periods of depressed moods and loss of pleasure of activities.
a person's disinterest in actitives that previously provided pleasure, such as sex, eating, or social activities
What must a person show in order to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder?
they must show at least five symptoms, one in which they must either be depressed or anhedonia
mood is disordered in two directions, in which they alternate with periods of mania
a period of unrealistically elevated mood
Major depressive disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed psychological disorders, True or False?
an application of operant conditioning that occurs when consequences of behavior appear to be random or uncontrolled
Example of learned helplessness
"the amount of studying i do does not seem to make a difference in my test grade" whether you study hard or not you might begin to believe that grades are outcomes that cannot be controlled. You begin to feel helpless in preparing for exams and this belief in your own helplessness can lead to depressions