1. Polyribosome
    A complex of several ribosomes translating from the same mRNA
  2. Missense Mutation
    • Changes the amino acid it codes for;
    • eg. Sickle cell anemia
  3. Silent Mutation
    • change in base of codon, does not change amino acid but is a new allele
    • GCA > GCC, both Ala
  4. Nonsense Mutation
    • replaces codon with a stop codon
    • shorter than it is suppose to be
  5. Nucleotides are added in........
    5' to 3' direction
  6. RNA Polymerase
    the enzyme that catalyzes transcription
  7. Promoters
    DNA sequences near the beginning of a gene that signals RNA polymerase to begin transcription
  8. Terminators
    Sequences in the RNA products that tells the RNA pol where to stop
  9. What are the methods of termination?
    • Rho dependent
    • Rho independent
    • Transcription
  10. Prokaryotes Translation:
    • Shine Dalgarno Sequence
    • AGGAGG , purine rich
    • tRNA carries formylmethionine
    • translation in the cytoplasm ; tightly coupled
  11. Eukaryotes Translation:
    • binds to 5' cap
    • imitator tRNA carries Methionine
    • transcription and replication in nucleus
    • translation in the cytoplasm
  12. Rho dependent
    • some terminators involved
    • recognized by a protein
    • disengages the RNA pol
  13. Rho independent
    • does not involve a protein
    • sequence mediated
  14. Exons
    • amino acid coding regions
    • they contain expressed sequences found in both a genes DNA and in the mature mRNA
  15. Introns
    • amino acid non coding region
    • they contain non intervening sequences found in the gene, not in mature mRNA
  16. Eukaryotes modification; transcription
    • primary =/= mRNA
    • 5' cap
    • 3' A tail
    • splicing
  17. Prokaryotes modification ; transcription
    • no postranscriptional processing
    • primary = mRNA
  18. Intragenic Suppression
    • The restoration of a gene function by one mutation by cancelling the other in the same gene
    • wrong making a right !
  19. RNA like strand
    • sense strand
    • coding strand
    • + strand
  20. Lactose Genes
    • Lac Z - encodes for b galactosidase (break down lactose into galactose and glucose)
    • Lac Y - encodes for permease (allow lactose into the cell)
    • Lac A - encodes for transacetylase that adds an acetyl group to lactose
  21. Polycistronic
    • one mRNA with 2 or more transcribed genes on it
    • eg. lac operon
  22. Operon
    a unit of DNA composed of specific genes, plus a promoter and operator, which acts in unison to regulate the response of the structural genes to environmental changes
  23. Enhancer
    regulatory site that can be located far away from the core promoter or quite close
  24. Cis acting elements by RNA Pol II
    • initiation site ( +1 of transcription)
    • TATA box (-30 position) approx 7 nucleotides
    • CAAT box (-75-100 position)
    • GC boxes
  25. TBP
    • TATA box binding proteins
    • essential to the initation of transcription from all class II genes with a TATA box
  26. TAF
    TBP associated factors
  27. Transcriptional Activators
    • increase transcription by 100 folds
    • has two important domains ;DNA binding domain and the transcription activation domain
  28. Repressors
    bind to specific set of genes at sites known as silencers and slowing transcription
  29. Coactivators
    these "adaptor" molecules integrate signals from activators and maybe repressors
  30. Basal Transcription factors
    in response to injunction from activators, these factors position RNA pol at the beginning of transcription
  31. Homomers
    • Multimeric proteins composed of identical subunits
    • 2 subunit = homomers
  32. Electrophoresis
    • the movement of charged molecules in an electric field.  DNA in solution is weakly acidic(-ve charge)
    • The larger the molecule, the slower it moves through the matrix
  33. Molecular Cloning
    the process of using living cells to make many exact replicas of a fragment of foreign DNA
  34. Whats the two types of vectors
    • plasmids
    • YAC (Yeast artifical chromosomes)
  35. Phenotype frequency
    the proportion of individuals in a population that are of a particular phenotype
  36. Genotype frequency
    the proportion of individuals in a population that are of a particular genotype
  37. Allele frequency
    the proportion of all copies of a gene in a population that are of a given allele type
  38. Genetic Drift
    • effects the allele frequency
    • unpredictable, chance fluctuation in allele frequency that have no effect on survival
    • smaller the population, the greater effect of
    • the drift
  39. Thymine Dimer
    When two thymines are adjacent to one another in a DNA strand, the absorption of UV radiation can cause the formation of a covalent bond between them
  40. Artificial Selection
    purposeful matings
  41. Why garden peas?
    • easy to cross fertilze
    • short growing season
    • large number of offsprings
  42. Phenotype
    • Observable characteristics
    • determined mostly by genotype
    • commonly referred to as a trait
  43. Genotype
    • genetic make up
    • description of the genetic information carried by the individual
  44. True Breeding line
    offspring always showed the same phenotype as the parent plants
  45. What was disproved through reciprocal crosses?
    theories that one parents contribute most to an offspring inherited features
  46. Mendel's law of segregation
    • describes how alleles in a gene behave
    • the two alleles for each trait separate during gamete formation, then unite at random, one from each parent, at fertilization
  47. Pleiotropy
    • multiple phenotypic effects caused by a single gene
    • eg sickle cell anemia
  48. Multifactioral Inheirtance
    a phenotype arising from the action of two or more genes ( polygenic) or from interactions between genes and the environment
  49. Phenotypic ratio of complementary gene action?
  50. Phenotypic ratio of recessive epistatsis?
  51. Phenotypic ratio of dominant epistasis:
  52. Multiple gene action
    most common traits are determined by more than one gene
  53. Complementary gene action
    2 or more genes can work in tandem, in the same biochemical pathway to produce a particular trait
  54. Mitosis
    nuclear division that results in 2 daughter cells each containing identical numbers of chromosomes to the parent cells clones
  55. Meiosis
    nuclear division that results in each egg and sperm containing 0.5 the number of chromosomes found in other cells (somatic)unique
  56. DNA pol must have..........
    3' OH to extend upon
  57. Three activites of DNA pol
    • 5' to 3' polymerase activities
    • 3' to 5' exonuclease activity ( proofreading)
    • 5' to 3' exonuclease activity (removing primer)
  58. Gene Dosage
    the number of times a given gene is present in the genome
  59. Tandem duplication
    lie adjacent to each other , either in the same order or in reverse order
  60. Nontandem duplication
    two or more copies of a region that are not adjacent to each other and may lie far apart on the same chromosome or different chromosome
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