General Obstetrics

  1. What is the gestation length of a cow?
    285 days
  2. What is the gestation length of a mare?
    340 days
  3. What is the gestation length of a ewe/doe?
    150 days
  4. What is the gestation length of a sow?
    114 days (3,3,3)
  5. How much earlier will first calf heifers go in to labor?
    10 - 14 days earlier
  6. Is dystocia common in large animals?
  7. What are some warning signs of parturition?
    • udder distension (bagging up)
    • melting vulva
    • sunken appearance around base of tail
    • passing the mucus plug - will be bright white and will be in labor between 12 and 24 hours
  8. What is stage 1 of normal parturition?  How long does this stage last?
    • restlessness, isolation, vaginal discharge, kicking at abdomen, raising tail
    • 2 - 6 hours
  9. What is stage 2 of normal parturition?  How long does this stage last?
    • rupturing of the amniotic sac marks initiation of 2nd stage, abdominal press or contractions, expulsion of the fetus
    • should be complete within 2 hours
  10. What is stage 3 of normal parturition?  How long does this stage last?
    • expulsion of fetal membranes or placenta
    • should occur within 8 hours
  11. What are the three layers of the placenta?
    • amnion
    • allantois
    • chorion
  12. What is the placenta?
    the portion that connects mother (endometrium) to offspring
  13. What are the cotyledons?
    lumps on the placenta
  14. What are the caruncles?
    lumps on the uterus
  15. How do the cotyledons and caruncles differ in cattle and horses?
    • cattle:  lumpy
    • mares:  diffused (velvety)
  16. What is dystocia?
    difficulty with parturition
  17. When should we provide assistance when an animal is experiencing dystocia?
    if the time limits are exceeded (shorter period in mares before intervention - 1/2 - 1 hour)
  18. What do we need to consider when we intervene in a dystocia case?
    • value of the calf
    • value of the dam (future breeding, milk, sentimental factors)
    • cost vs. benefits
  19. What are the three P's we evaluate when there is dystocia?
    • presentation
    • position
    • posture
  20. What is the presentation of the fetus?
    includes the portion of the fetus that is entering the birth canal and the relation of the fetal spinal axis to that of the dam's spinal axis
  21. What are the different types of presentation?
    • anterior, longitudinal:  fetus is in sternal and spine is lined up with mother
    • posterior, longitudinal:  fetus is in dorsal and spine is lined up with mother
    • ventral, transverse:  feet are presented in the canal and spine is perpendicular to the mothers
    • dorsal, transverse:  back is presented to the canal and spine is perpendicular to the mothers
  22. What is the position of the fetus?
    the relation of the dorsum (if longitudinal) or the head (if transverse) to the four quadrants of the dams pelvis
  23. What are the four quadrants of the dams pelvis?
    • sacral
    • pubic
    • right ilial
    • left ilial
  24. What are the different positions a fetus can have?
    • dorso - sacral
    • dorso - pubic
    • right dorso - ilial if longitudinal
    • left dorso - ilial if longitudinal
    • right cephalo - ilial if transverse
    • left cephalo - ilial if transverse
  25. What is the posture of the fetus?
    relation of the extremities to the rest of the body
  26. What is the normal P's of a fetus?
    • anterior, longitudinal presentation
    • dorso-sacral position
    • legs extended forward
  27. Delivery can occur unassisted with a posterior presentation but only if ____.
    the feet are coming first
  28. What is hiplock?
    pelvis stuck on pelivs
  29. What is breech?
    calf backwards, legs forwards with hocks locked on pelvis - posterior, longitudinal, dorsosacral, rear limbs forward
  30. What is mutation?
    the manipulation of the fetus
  31. What are the different types of mutation?
    • repulsion
    • rotation
    • version
    • extension or adjustment of extremities
  32. What is repulsion?
    pushing fetus back in
  33. What is rotation?
    adjust fetus around spinal axis
  34. What is version?
    end for end (for transverse)
  35. Other that having the wrong presentation/position/posture, what are some other causes of dystocia?
    • maternal
    • fetal
  36. What are some maternal causes of dystocia?
    • birth canal size (usually not the problem in adults, heifers shouldn't have calves <24 months of age)
    • uterine inertia
    • inadequate dilation (usually not a problem unless uterine torsion exists)
  37. We are not concerned about uterine inertia in which animals?  Why?
    • cows and horses
    • because they only have one offspring at a time
  38. What are some fetal causes of dystocia?
    • calf size too large
    • goal is to get small or reasonable size calves with good growth rates (to compensate for the initial loss in size)
    • calving ease sires - have low EPDs (expected progeny difference) for initial size (and hopefully good growth rates)
  39. What kind of equipment do we need when working with a dystocia case?
    • proper attire including OB sleeves
    • lube
    • chains/straps, handles, head snares, calf jacks (not come-a-longs or trucks/tractors)
    • fetatome and surgery pack possibly
  40. What kind of supplies do we need for an epidural?
    • 18 - 20 gauge, 1 1/2 inch needle
    • 5 ml of 2% Lidocaine HCl
  41. Where do we give an epidural in large animals?
    sacrococcygeal or C1 - C2 space
  42. When do we pull on the fetus?
    only when the dam's pushing
  43. How do we help with hiplock?
    rotate fetal pelvis 60 degrees as it passes through the dam's pelvis
  44. Why do we need to take our time?
    allows for continued dilation of the vagina, vestibule, and vulva which is the main limiting factor after the pelvis
  45. ___ of uterine torsions are counterclockwise.
  46. What are the different ways to treat uterine torsion?
    • rotation per vagina with swinging action or use a detorsion rod and twist opposite of torsion
    • plank in the flank (roll the cow in the same direction of the torsion)
    • C-section
  47. When should the after birth be passed?
    within 8 hours
  48. Do animals eat the placenta?
    yes, except horses
  49. When is the placenta considered retained?
    if not out in 12 hours
  50. If a placenta is retained, what are the different  things we can do?
    • oxytocin if it is within the first 12 hours
    • Lutalyse or ESP
    • Vitamin E/Selenium injection
    • +/- gentle traction
    • +/- uterine infusion
  51. What is uterine infusion?
    flushing the uterus with an antimicrobial solution to prevent post partum mestritis
  52. How do we put gentle traction on the placenta to help the animal pass it?
    • tie a 3 pound weight to it to help it come out
    • don't want to pull too hard and rip the placenta because then it will not come out and the animal will have to have it surgically removed
  53. How do we treat uterine prolapse?
    • replacement
    • anti-inflammatory
    • uterine infusion
    • oxytocin
    • parenteral antibiotics
  54. Is a uterine prolapse an emergency situation?
  55. How do we tell the different between a uterine prolapse and a vaginal prolapse?
    the uterus will have caruncles on it and the vagina will be smooth
  56. When do we usually see a vaginal prolapse and when do we usually see a uterine prolapse?
    • vaginal prolapse:  prepartum
    • uterine prolapse:  postpartum
  57. Is a vaginal prolapse an emergency?
  58. What causes calving paralysis (downer cow)?
    occurs due to pressure on the obturator nerve
  59. What is the prognosis for a cow with calving paralysis?
    • 50% recover within 1 week with treatment (corticosteroids) and TLC
    • 50% do not
    • if the cow is not better within a week, put the cow down
Card Set
General Obstetrics
Large Animals