Pharmacology Exam 1a

  1. Actice Absorption
    Movement of drug particles from the gastrointestinal tract to body fluids; requires a carrier, such as an enzyme or protein, to move the drug against a concentration gradient.
  2. Adverse Reactions
    Reactions to drugs that are more severe than side effects
  3. Agonists
    Drugs that produce a response
  4. Antagonists
    Drugs that block a response
  5. Bioavailability
    The percentage of an administered drug dose that reaches the systemic circulation
  6. Creatinine Clearance (CLcr)
    A diagnostic test that determines renal function
  7. Disintegration
    The breakdown of a tablet into smaller particles
  8. Dissolution
    The dissolving of the smaller particles of a tablet in the gastrointestinal fluid before absorption
  9. Distribution
    The process by which the drug becomes available to body fluids and body tissues
  10. Duration of action
    The length of time the drug has a pharmacologic effect
  11. Elimination
    Exretion of a drug, mainly through the kidneys (urine). Other routes of elimination include hepatic metabolism, bile, feces, lungs, saliva, sweat, and breast milk.
  12. Excipients
    Fillers and inert substances found in tablets
  13. First-pass effect
    The process in which a drug passes to the liver first
  14. Free drugs
    Drugs not bound by protein
  15. Half-life
    The time it takes for one half of a drug concentration to be eliminated
  16. High therapeutic index
    Drugs with a wide margin of safety and less danger of producing toxic effects
  17. Ligan-binding domain
    The site on the receptor in which drugs bind
  18. Loading dose
    A large intentional dose of drug given when an immediate drug response is desired to achieve a rapid minimum effective concentration on plasma
  19. Low therapeutic index
    Drugs with narrow margin of safety for which the drug effect should be closely monitored
  20. Metabolism
    Occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and liver; however, the liver is the primary site
  21. Nonselective drugs
    Drugs that affect various receptors
  22. Nonspecific drugs
    Drugs that affect various sites
  23. Onset
    The time it takes to reach the minimum effective concentration (MEC) after a drug is administered.
  24. Passive absorption
    Movement of drug particles from the gastrointestinal tract to body fluids that occurs mostly by diffusion (movement from higher concentration to lower concentration)
  25. Peak
    When drug reaches its highest blood plasma concentration
  26. Peak drug level
    The highest concentration of a drug at a specific time
  27. Pharmaceutic phase
    The first phase of drug action
  28. Pharmacodynamics
    The study of drug concentration and its effects on the body
  29. Pharmacogenetics
    The effect of a drug action that varies from a predicted drug response because of genetic factors or hereditary influence
  30. Pharmacokinetics
    The process of drug movement to achieve drug action
  31. Pinocytosis
    The process by which cells carry drugs across their membrane by engulfing the drug particles
  32. Placebo effect
    A psychological benefit from a compound that may not have the chemical structure of a drug effect
  33. Rate limiting
    The time it takes a drug to disintegrate and dissolve, becoming available for the body to absorb it
  34. Receptor families
    Four families, including (1) kinase-linked receptors, (2) ligand-gated ion channels, (3) G protein-coupled receptor systems, (4) nuclear receptors
  35. Side effects
    Physiologic effects of drugs not related to desired effects of drugs
  36. Tachyphylaxis
    A rapid decrease in a response to a drug
  37. Therapeutic index (TI)
    Estimates the margin of safety of a drug through the use of a ratio that measures the effective (therapeutic or concentration) dose (ED) in 50% of persons or animals (ED50) and the lethal dose (LD) in 50% of animals (LD50)
  38. Therapeutic range (therapeutic window)
    The range of drug concentration in plasma, which should be between the minimum effective concentration in the plasma for obtaining a desired drug action and the minimum toxic concentration, or the toxic effect.
  39. Time-response curve
    Evaluates three parameters of drug action; (1) the onset of drug action, (2) peak aciton and (3) duration of action
  40. Tolerance
    A decreased responsiveness over the course of drug therapy
  41. Toxic effects
    The first adverse symptoms that occur at a particular dose. Toxic effects can be identified by monitoring the plasma (serum) therapeutic range of the drug
  42. Toxicity
    The first adverse symptoms that occur at a particular dose. Toxicity can be identified by monitoring the plasma therapeutic range of the drug
  43. Trough
    The lowest plasma concentration of a drug, which measures the rate at which the drug is eliminated
  44. Assessment
    The first phase of the nursing process
  45. Culturally sensitive
    An awareness of culture implications for a client and/or the client's family
  46. Evaluation
    The phase of the nursing process that addresses the effectiveness of health teaching about drug therapy and the attainment of goals
  47. Goal setting
    Expected outcomes for a client, determined during the planning phase of the nursing process
  48. Implementation
    The phase of the nursing process that includes the nursing actions and interventions necessary to accomplish the established goals or expected outcomes
  49. Nursing diagnosis
    A diagnosis made by a registered nurse based on analysis of the assessment data
  50. Planning
    The phase of the nursing process characterized by goal setting or expected outcomes; it also includes development of nursing interventions that will be used to assist the client in meeting outcomes
  51. Buccal
    Medication placed between the gum and the cheek
  52. Cumulative effect
    When a drug is metabolized or excreted more slowly than the rate at which its being administered
  53. Informed consent
    Ensuring an individual has the knowledge necessary to make a medical decision, which is critical to preventing medication errors
  54. Inhalation
    Medication given via aerosol sprays
  55. Instillations
    Medication given in the nose, eyes or ears
  56. Intradermal
    A type of injection used for observation of an inflammatory (allergic) reaction to foreign particles
  57. Intramuscular (IM)
    A type of injection used for irritating drugs, aqueous suspensions, and solutions in oils
  58. Intravenouse (IV)
    An injection in an accessible peripheral vein
  59. Meniscus
    The line for determining the desired dose of a liquid drug
  60. metered-dose inhaler (MDI)
    Hand-held devices that deliver medications to oropharyngeal and lower respiratory tracts
  61. Parenteral
    Medication administered ID, SQ, IM, IV
  62. Right assessment
    Collecting appropriate data before administration of a drug
  63. Right client
    Using two forms of identificatin prior to the administration of medication
  64. Right documentation
    Immediately record appropriate information regarding drug. (1) name of drug, (2) dose, (3) route or injection site, (4) time and date, (5) nurse's signature or intitials
  65. Right dose
    The dose prescribed for that particular client
  66. Right drug
    Determining the client receives the correct drug that was prescribed
  67. Right evaluation
    Requires the effectiveness of a medication be determined by the client's response to the medication
  68. Right route
    Administering the correct form of drug to ensure appropriate absorption
  69. Right time
    The time at which a prescribed dose should be administered
  70. Right to education
    Requires that a client receive accurate and thorough information about a medication and how it relates to his or her particular situation
  71. Right to refuse
    A client's choice to decide against taking a medication
  72. Spacers
    Devices used to enhance the delivery of meds for MDIs
  73. Stock drug method
    Process by which drugs are dispensed to all clients from the same containers
  74. Subcutaneouse (SQ)
    An injection used for small drugs of non irritating, water-soluble drugs
  75. Sublingual
    Med placed under the tongue for venous absorption
  76. Suppository
    Med admin rectally or vaginally
  77. Tolerance
    A decreased responsiveness over the course of drug therapy
  78. Topical
    Med applied to the skin
  79. Transdermal
    Med stored in a patch placed on the skin and absorbed through the skin, thereby having a systemic effect
  80. Unit dose method
    Process by which drugs are individually wrapped and labeled for single doses
  81. Z-track technique
    An injection that prevents medication from leaking back into the SQ tissue. It is frequently advised for meds that cause visible permanent skin discolorations
  82. Biocultural ecology
    Includes concepts r/t biologic variations, heredity, genetics, endemics, and drug metabolism
  83. Ethnocultural
    A combo of ethnic and cultural variables
  84. Ethnopharmacology
    A new domain that integrates pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics with genetic and ethnic variations
  85. Spatial distancing
    The physical proximity between people conversing varies between and among cultural groups
  86. Temporality
    The perspective of time that determines whether a client stresses a past, present or future orientation
  87. Chronological age
    The actual age
  88. Developmental age
    The develomental and cognitive differences from a child's chronological age, to be considered when administering meds
  89. Nonadherance
    A client's failure to follow a drug regimen. Esp problematic with older adults
  90. Noncompliance
    A client's failure to follow a drug regimen
  91. Polypharmacy
    Administration of many drugs together
  92. Fat-soluble vitamins
    Vitamins that are metabolized slowly and can be stored in the fatty tissue, liver, and muscle in large amounts. They are excreted in the urine at a slow rate.

  93. Iron
    A mineral vital for hemoglobin regeneration
  94. Megavitamin therapy
    Admin massive doses of vitamins.
  95. Mineral
    A compound needed for the body to function, such as iron, copper, zinc, chromium and selenium
  96. Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
    Daily dose requirements of each vitamin published by the National Academy of Sciences Food and Nutrition Board
  97. Water-soluble vitamins
    The B-complex vitamins and vitamin C
  98. Anion
    The negative charge of electrolytes
  99. Cation
    The positive charge of electrolytes
  100. Electrolytes
    Substances in the body that carry either a positive or negative charge
  101. Hypercalcemia
    A calcium level greater than 5.5 mEq/L
  102. Hyperchloremia
    An elevated chloride serum level
  103. Hyperkalemia
    A serum potassium level greater than 5.3 mEq/L
  104. Hypermagnesemia
    A magnesium excess
  105. Hypernatremia
    A serum sodium level greater than 145mEq/L
  106. Hyperosmolar
    Body fluid that has more particles than water
  107. Hyperphosphotatemia
    A decreased level of phosphorous.
  108. Hypocalcemia
    A calcium deficit of of less than 4.5 mEq/L
  109. Hypochloremia
    A decreased chloride level
  110. Hypokalemia
    A serum potassium level less than 3.5 mEq/L
  111. Hypomagnesemia
    A magesium deficit
  112. Hypoosmolar
    Body fluid that has fewer particles than water
  113. Isoosmolar
    Body fluid that has the same proportion of weight of particles and water
  114. Osmolality
    The concentration of body fluids
  115. Tonicity
    The effect of fluid on cellular volume
  116. Bolus
    Method used to deliver enteral feedings whereby 250 to 400 ml of solution is rapidly administered through a syringe or funnel into a tube four to six times daily
  117. Continuous feedings
    Enteral feedings rx for the critically ill or those who receive feedings into the small intestine given by an infusion pump at a slow rate over 24 hours
  118. Cyclic method
    A type of continuous feeding that is infused over 8 to 16 hours daily
  119. Enteral nutrition
    Feedings involving the gastrointestinal tract that can be given orally or by feeding tubes.
  120. Hyperalimentation (HA)
    Adminsitering high-caloric nutrients through the subclavian vein
  121. Intermittent enteral feedings
    Feedings admin Q 3-6h over 30-60 min by gravity drip or pump infusion
  122. Intermittent infusion
    An inexpensive method for admin enteral nutrition
  123. NG tube
    The most common route for short-term enteral feedings; given through oral or nasal cavities
  124. Parenteral nutrition
    Admin high-caloric nutrients through large veins
  125. TPN
    Admin high-caloric nutrition through subclavian vein
  126. Valsalva maneuver
    A technique to prevent air embolism in which a client must take a breath, hold it, bear down while the nurse is chaning infusion bags or bottles and tubing for TPN
  127. Acute pharyngitis
    Inflammatin of the throat "sore throat"
  128. Acute rhynitis
    Acute inflammation of the mucous membranse of the nose
  129. Allergic rhinitis
    Often called hay fever; this is caused by pollen or a foreing substance
  130. Antihistamines
    H1 blockers or H1 antagonists that compete with histamine receptor sites, thus preventing a histamine response
  131. Antitussives
    Drugs that can act on the cough-control center in the medulla to suppress the cough reflex
  132. Common cold
    The most prevalent type of URI
  133. Decongestants
    Sympathomimetic amines
  134. Expectorants
    Drugs that loosen bronchial secretions so that they can be eliminated by coughing
  135. Rebound nasal congestion
    Rebound vasal dilation instead of vasoconstriction
  136. Rhinorrhea
    Watery nasal d/c
  137. Sinusitis
    An inflammation of the mucous membranes of one or more of the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, or sphenoid sinuses
  138. Asthma
    An inflammatory disorder of the airway walls with varying amounts of the airway obstruction
  139. Bronchial asthma
    A COPD disease charac by periods of bronchospasm resulting in wheezing and difficulty breathing
  140. Bronchiectasis
    Abnormal dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles secondary to frequent infections and inflammation
  141. Bronchodilators
    Drugs that include sympathomimetics (primarily beta2-adrenergic agonists), methylxanthines, leukotriene agonists, glucocorticoids, cromlyn, anticholinergics, and mucolytics
  142. Bronchospasm
    Also bronchoconstriction; results when the lung tissue is exposed to extrinsic or intrinsic factors that stimulate a bronchoconstrictive response
  143. Chronic bronchitis
    A progessive lung disease caused by smoking or chronic lung infections
  144. COPD
    Disease caused by airway obstruction, with increased airway resistance of airflow to lung tissues
  145. Emphysema
    A progressive lung disease caused by cigarette smoking, atmospheric contaminants, or lack of alpha1-antitrypsin protein that inhabits proteolytic enzymes that destroy alveoli (air sacs)
  146. Glucocorticoids
    Members of the corticosteroid family that are used to treat resp disorders, particularly asthma
  147. Mucolytics
    Drugs that act like detergents by liquefying and loosening thich mucous secretions so that they can be expectorated
  148. Restrictive lung disease
    A decrease in lung capacity as a result of fluid accumulation or loss of elasticity of the lung
  149. Absorbents
    Drugs that act by coating the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and absorbing the bacteria or toxins that cause diarhhea
  150. Antidiarrheals
    Drugs used to tx dirrhea and decreasing hypermotility (increased peristalsis)
  151. Antiemetics
    Antivomiting agents
  152. Cannabinoids
    Marijuana to alleviate n/v resulting from CA tx or AIDS
  153. Cathartics
    Drugs used to eliminate fecal matter
  154. Chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ)
    A cerebral center that lies near the medulla and causes vomiting when stimulated
  155. Chloride channel activators
    Drugs that activate chloride channels in the lining of the small intestine, leading to an increase in intestinal fluid secretion and motility
  156. Emollients
    Stool softeners and lubricants used to prevent constipation
  157. Osmotics
    Hyperosmolar laxatives, including salts or saline products, lactulose and glycerin
  158. Purgatives
    Harsh cathartics that cause a watery stool with abdominal cramping
  159. Duodenal ulcer
    Caused by a hypersecretion of acid from the stomach that passes to the duodenum because of (1) insufficient buffers to neutralize the gastric acid in the stomach (2) a defective or incomepetent pyloric sphincer (3) hypermotility of the stomach
  160. Esophageal ulcer
    Results from reflux of acidic secretion into the esophagus as a result of a defective or incompetent cardiac sphincter
  161. Gastric mucosal barrier (GMB)
    A thick, viscous, mucous material that provides a barrier between the mucosal lining and the acidic gastic secretions
  162. Gastic ulcer
    Frequently occurs because of a breakdown of the gastric mucosal barrier
  163. GERD
    Inflammation or erosion of the esophageal mucosa caused by a reflux of gastric acid content from the stomach into the esophagus
  164. Histamine2 receptor antagonists
    Popular drugs used in the tx of gastric and duodenal ulcers, they prevent acid reflux in the esophagus (reflux esophagitis)
  165. Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
    Acid released from the parietal cells of the stomach; influenced by histamine, gastin and acetylcholine
  166. Pepsin
    A digestive enzyme
  167. Peptic ulcer
    A broad term for an ulcer occuring in the esophagus, stomach or duodenum within the upper gi tract
  168. Carbonic anhydrase nhibitors
    Drugs that interfere with production of carbonic acid, which leads to decreased aqueous humor formation and decreased intraocular pressure
  169. Cyclopedics
    Agents that paralyze the muscles of accomodation
  170. Miosis
    Contraciton of the pupil
  171. Miotic
    Agents used to lower the IOP, thereby increasing blood flow to the retina and decreasing retinal damage and loss of vision
  172. Mydriatics
    Agents that dilate the pupil
  173. Osmotics
    Agents used preoperatively and postoperatively to decrease vitreous humor volume, thereby reducing the IOP
  174. Keratolysis
    Removal of the horny layer of the epidermis
Card Set
Pharmacology Exam 1a
Kee Ch 1-3, 10 & 11, 6, 14-16, 39&40, 46-49