1. Sperm whale circulation
    • deep dives
    • feeds on squid
    • dive over a mile deep and stay down for an hour
    • Bradycardia- slowed heart beat 
    • vasoconstriction- restrict blood flow to unessential areas in their body
  2. what organisms use passive diffusion?
    small organisms
  3. simple animals (such as cnidarians) have a body wall that is what?
    • Simple animals, such as cnidarians, have a body wall that is only two cells thick and that encloses a gastrovascular cavity
    • This cavity functions in both digestion and distribution of substances throughout the body
    • Some cnidarians, such as jellies, have elaborate gastrovascular cavities
    • Flatworms have a gastrovascular cavity and a large surface area to volume ratio
  4. do more complex animals have open or closed circulatory systems
    they can have either
  5. what are the 3 components of both open and closed circulatory systems
    • –A circulatory fluid (blood or hemolymph)
    • –A set of tubes (blood vessels)
    • –A muscular pump (the heart)
  6. open circulatory system
    • In an open circulatory system, there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid, and this general body fluid is more correctly called hemolymph
    • In insects, other arthropods, and most molluscs, blood bathes the organs directly in an open circulatory system
  7. closed circulatory system
    • blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid
    • Closed systems are more efficient at transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells
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  9. what are the three main types of blood vessels
    The three main types of blood vessels are arteries, veins, and capillaries
  10. arteries branch into what and carry blood where?
    arterioles and carry blood to capillaries
  11. Networks of capillaries called what are the sites of chemical exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid
    capillary beds
  12. venules converge into what and return blood from where to the heart?
    venules converge into veins and return blood from capillaries to the heart
  13. vertebrates contain how many chambers in their heart?
    two- chambers
  14. Blood enters through an what and is pumped out through a what?
    atrium,  ventricle
  15. name 3 organisms with a two-chambered heart
    Bony fishes, rays, and sharks have single circulation with a two-chambered heart
  16. what happens in single circulation
    In single circulation, blood leaving the heart passes through two capillary beds before returning
  17. Amphibian, reptiles, and mammals have what kind of circulation?
    Amphibian, reptiles, and mammals have double circulation
  18. how is oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood pumped in the heart?
    Oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood are pumped separately from the right and left sides of the heart
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    double circluation
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  22. cardiac cycle
    The heart contracts and relaxes in a rhythmic cycle called the cardiac cycle
  23. systole
    The contraction, or pumping phase
  24. diastole
    The relaxation, or filling phase
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    cardiac cycle
  26. arteries have thicker or thinner walls that veins?
    thicker (more pressure pumping through)
  27. in the thinner-walled veins, blood flows back to the heart mainly as a result of what?
    muscle action
  28. arteries and veins have what 3 things
    Arteries and veins have an endothelium, smooth muscle, and connective tissue
  29. capillaries have what?
    Capillaries have thin walls, the endothelium plus its basement membrane, to facilitate the exchange of materials
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Card Set
Test 4