1. Young Man's Movement
    •                                                               i.      Nazism: young man’s movement
    • b.      By 1929, Nazi Party shifted strategy
    •                                                               i.      pursued urban strategy geared toward winning workers from socialists and communists
    • 1.      failure in 1928 elections (2.6% of vote; 12 seats in Reichstag)à changed course to supporting middle and lower middle class men
  2. economic difficutlties
    • a.      Germany’s economic difficulties allowed Hitler to rise
    •                                                               i.      unemployment rose
    • economic and psychological impact of the Great Depresssion made them more actractiveà18% in Rvote and 107 seats
  3. 1930
    a.      By 1930, Chancellor Heinrich Bruning foundi it impossible to form a working parliamentary majority in the Reichstag and relied on use of emergency decrees by Pres Hindenburg to rule, but parliament was dying
  4. nazi seizure of power
    •                                                               i.      quest for power depended on maneuvering around Presidnet Hindenburg
    • elections of 1930-1932 allowed Nazi party to grow and thus rise; the SA also rose to 500,000 members
  5. effective modern electioneering techniques
    •                                                               i.      effective modern electioneering techniques
    • 1.      pitched to needs and fear of different social groups while denouncing conflicts of interest and assuring htat people knew their superiority, esp. Hitler who said he’d mae Germany free of class differences and party infighting
  6. election limits
    a.      Elections had limits as Nazi won 230 seats in July 1932 (largest party in Reichstag)à decline to 196à realized ballot wasn’t enough, especially sicne government ruled yb decree with support of Hidenburg
  7. right wing elites
    •                                                               i.      right-wing elites saw Hitler as the man with the mass support to establish a rigiht-wing, authoritarian regime that would save Germany and their privileged positiosn from a Communist takeover
    • 1.      they tried to control Hitler but underestimated him and eventually, Hindenbur allowed Hitler to become chancellor
  8. Two months
    • a.      Two months and Hitler laid foundations for Nazis’ complete control over Germany
    •                                                               i.      one of hist cohorts, Hermann Goring, was minister of interior and head of police of Prussian state; purged police of non-Nazis and established auxiliary police force composed of SA members
  9. nazi terror
    • 1.      this action legitimized Nazi terror
    • a.      On the day after a fire broke out in Reichstag buidlign, hitler convinced Hindenburg to issue decree that gave government emergency powers that suspended all rights of citizens during emergency (Nazis could arrest them)
  10. Most important step
                                                                  i.      Most important step was after 288s seats and the Enabling Act, which allowd government to dispense with constitutional forms for four years whiel issuing laws that would deal with country problems
  11. act
    • 1.      since act was amendment to Weimar constitution, the Nazis got 2/3 votes to pass it
    • only social Democrats opposed him, but because the Enabling Act allowed legal basis for Hitler’s actions, he didn’t need Reichstag or President Hindeburgà dictator
  12. Nazis enforced
    • a.      As leader, the Nazis enforced Gleichschaltung, the coordination of all institutions under Nazi control
    •                                                               i.      civil service purged of Jews and democrats, concentration camps made, autonomy of states ended, trade unions dissolved and replaced by Labor Front, and aall political partie but Nazis were abolished
  13. How did they do it?
    • a.      How? Nazis were ruthless and ready
    •                                                               i.      depression dn Weimar Republic’s failure to resolve it weakened german faith
    •                                                             ii.      also, Nazis offered a national awakening; “Germany awake” and view of new Germany that was above parties/classes 
  14. By end of 1933
    • a.      By end of 1933, two sources of danger to Hitler
    •                                                               i.      armed forces and SA within his own party
    • 1.      the SA, under Ernst Rohm, criticized Hitler and wanted “second revolution” to replace regular army by SA
  15. Hitler didn't like it
    a.      Hitler didn’t like this; and, on Jun 30, 1934, he killed Rohm and other SA leaders which gave support in allowing Hitler to succeed Hindenburg when he diedà sole ruler of Germanyà Third Reich
  16. The Nazi state
    •                                                               i.      real task: develop the “Total State”
    • 1.      idealogoical goals, not just tyranny
    • a.      development of Aryan racial state that would dominate Europe
  17. pursued creation
    •                                                               i.      pursued creation of Nazi state in many ways
    • 1.      mass demonstrations and spectacles to allow collective fellowship of German nation and use it for Hitler’s policies
    • a.      mass demonstrations combined symbolism of religious service with merriment of popular amusement; great appeal
  18. contradictory elements
    •                                                               i.      contradictory elements of state          
    • 1.      Nazi Germany ahd personal and institutional conflict, not control and order
    • a.      incessant struggle within party, state, and between the two
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      made Hitler ultimate decision maker
  19. economy
    •                                                               i.      Economy= Hiteler and Nazis had control, but industry not nationalized
    • 1.      Hilter thought it was irrelevant who owned the means of protection as long as owners recognized master
  20. regime pursued
    1.      although the regime pursued the use of public works projects and “pump-priming” grants to private construction firms to foster employment and end depression, rearmament served unemployment problem, which rose
  21. German Labor Front
    •                                                               i.      German Labor Front under Robert Ley regulated world of labor
    • 1.      Labor Front was a state controlled union and used workbook to control
    • a.      every salaried worker ahd to have one in order to hold a job, which was obtained by submitting to policies of Nazi-controlled Labor Front; also kept men happy
  22. For those who needed coercion
    •                                                               i.      for those who needed coercion, the Nazi total state had instruments of terror and repression
    • 1.      SS, the SChutzstaffeln, or Protection Squads
    • a.      originally created has his bodyguard, under Heinrich Himmler, the SS controlled regular and secret police forces
  23. Himmler
    • 1.      Himmler and SS had two ideals: terror and ideology
    • a.      terror included repression and murder through secret and criminal police, camps, etc.
    • b.      For Himler, the SS was crusading order whose primary goal was to further the Aryan master race; had racial ideology
  24. Other institutiosn
    •                                                               i.      Other institutiosn such asCatholic and Protestant churches, schools, and universities were controlled by state
    • 1.      professional organizations and leagues formed for teachers, women, farmers, etc. 
  25. Youth
    •                                                               i.      Because Hitler harped on youth, the Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) and its female counterpart, the German Girls association, ahd oath for dedication
    • b.      Women had crucial role in Aryan racial state as bearers of children who bring about triumph of Aryan race
  26. Sex differences
    •                                                               i.      to Nazis, sex differences clear
    • 1.      men were warriors/ political leaders
    • 2.      women” wives and mothers
    • a.      Motherhood certemony on hitler’s mom’s birthday, when Hitler was awarded the German Mother’s cross to a select group of German mothers
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