1. Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and Bases
    An acid is a substance that can donate a hydrogen ion.

    A base can accept a hydrogen ion
  2. Conjugate pair
    Separated only by the presence of a hydrogen ion

    (e-mail me if you have more to add)
  3. Diprotic acid
    Can donate two hydrogen ions
  4. Dissociation of an acid
    The splitting apart of an acid in water to give a hydrogen ion and an anion
  5. which is stronger an inorganic or an organic acid?
    inorganic acid
  6. strong acid
    100% dissociates in water.  More readily gives up a hydrogen ion
  7. weak acid
    less than 100% dissociates in water.  Does not give up a hydrogen ion as readily as a strong acid.
  8. Why is the maintenance of Hydrogen Ions Important?
    • Optimal function of Enzymes
    • Proper distribution of Electrolytes ex. potassium
    • Optimization of myocardial contractility
    • Optimal saturation of hemoglobin
  9. What does acidosis do to myocardial contractility?
    Decreases it
  10. Many vasoactive drugs don't work in_________
  11. The hydrogen concentration for a PH of 7.4 is...
    0.00004 MEQ/L
  12. PH
    A convenient means of expressing hydrogen concentration

    PH= -log[H+]=log 1/[H+]
  13. K is the...........
    • equilibrium constant
    • dissociation constant
    • ionization constant
  14. Ka
    the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of acid (HA)
  15. PKA=?
    PKA=-logka=log 1/ka
  16. carbon dioxide is a ______ acid
  17. hydrogen ion is a ______ acid
    fixed acid or nonvolatile acid
  18. What does hydrogen ion depend on
    Ratio of PCO2 and HCO3-
  19. Carbon dioxide can be used as a measure for _____
    carbonic acid
  20. PKA of carbonic acid is
  21. Buffers
    local and immediate but incomplete

    Regulate excessive changes in H+
  22. How do the lungs buffer?
    Regulate CO2 removal

    act within minutes
  23. how do kidneys buffer?
    Excrete either acid or basic urine

    act in hours to days
  24. of the three buffer systems which is the most powerful?
  25. what is the definition of a buffer
    Any substance that can reversibly bind hydrogen ions
  26. what are the components of the bicarbonate buffer
    a weak acid

    a bicarbonate salt
  27. what is the pk of bicarbonate buffer system?
  28. where does the phosphate buffer system work
    renal tubular fluid

    intracellular fluid
  29. what is the pk of the phosphate buffer system
  30. The Henderson Hasselbach equation shows us how to get PH with what values?
    Need the pk

    Bicarb concentration

    PCO2 concentration
  31. How much nonvolatile acid does the body produce each day from the metabolism of proteins?
    80 MEQ
  32. Fluid buffers are local and immediate but incomplete T/F?
  33. Lungs act within _________ 

    (when referring to buffering)
  34. kidneys are the slowest buffering system T/F?

    They take hours to days, but they provide more complete correction
  35. What does buffering capacity depend on?
    • Amount of buffer present
    • PKA of buffer
    • PH of the environment
  36. Bicarbonate Buffer
    Most important ECF buffer
  37. Phosphate buffer
    Renal tubular buffer
  38. Ammonia buffer
    Renal tubular fluid buffer
  39. Protein buffer
    Most important ICF buffer

    60-70% of buffering is ICF
  40. what is the PKA of the bicarbonate buffer
  41. Efficiency of bicarb buffer improve/worsens with acidosis

    Body PH gets closer to the PKA of the Bicarb buffer
  42. What is the main way kidneys control acid base balance?
    By excreting acidic or basic urine
  43. How much bicarbonate do kidneys buffer everyday
    4000 MEQs
  44. What needs to happen for kidneys to reabsorb bicarb?
    it needs to react with a secreted H+
  45. what is the pka of the phosphate buffer?
  46. what amino acid does NH4+ get synthesized from?
  47. for every molecule of glutamine that gets metabolized...........
    2 NH+are secreted

    2 Bicarb reabsorbed  (which generates new bicarb)
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