PSYC 270

  1. what are the three approaches to evaluating results
    naive- you believe everything you are told

    Cynical - what we should be trying to be

    critical- you dont believe anything
  2. —Bystander Apathy
    • —When an emergency
    • happens there may be a tendency to intervene but also a tendency to not
    • intervene
  3. —Diffusion of

    • —If a person is alone,
    • the responsibility and the blame focuses on him/herself
    • —If there are more
    • people involved responsibility and blame is shared.
  4. The Scientific Method

    • 1.Observe and form a
    • question
    • 2.Develop a theory or
    • idea
    • 3.Frame as a testable
    • hypothesis
    • 4.Design Study and Test
    • hypothesis
    • 5.Interpret the meaning
    • of the results
  5. :
    The higher the number of people in an emergency situation, the less likely it
    is that any one individual will help

  6. —Conceptual variables
    —Operational variables
    • —Conceptual
    • variables: abstract, general
    • —Operational
    • definition: specific, measurable
  7. Experimental

    • Method
    • in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions
    • and ensures these conditions are identical except for the independent variable
    • (the one thought to have a causal effect on people’s responses

    • —Independent
    • variables (IV): The factors experimenters manipulate to see if they
    • affect the DV.
    • —Dependent
    • variables (DV): The factors experimenters measure to see if they are
    • affected by the IV.
  8. Random
    Assignment to experimental Conditions

    • —All participants have
    • an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment.
    • —Differences in the
    • participants abilities,
    • personalities or backgrounds are distributed evenly across conditions.
  9. —Control
    of Extraneous Variables
    making sure only the indep variable affects the dep variable
  10. how to control extranious variables
    —Counterbalance conditions

    • —Random Assignment
    • —Experimenter Expectancy Effects
    • —Blind or Double-Blind Studies: either the experimenter or both the experimenter and the participant are unaware of the conditions or the hypothesis of the study
  11. Experimental realism
    • — experimental situation is involving to participants
    • —Deception
  12. Observational Method

    • The

    • technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records
    • measurements or impressions of their behavior.


    children in a room with toys how they behave
  13. problems with observational method
    • —Time consuming
    • —Social psychologists
    • want to do more than just describe behavior.
    • —They want to predict
    • and explain it.
    • —
  14. Correlational

    • The technique whereby

    • two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between
    • them (i.e., how much one can be predicted from the other) is assessed.
  15. Archival studies
    • studying records of past events and histories, examples: newspaper articles, medical records, diaries,
    • sports statistics, personal ads, crime statistics or hits on web page.
  16. Meta Analysis
    • —: statistical method for
    • combining and analyzing the results from many studies to draw a general
    • conclusion.
  17. components of informed consent
    • 1.Competence:
    • Is the participant capable of autonomous decision making? Does he/she understand
    • the information presented? Can the participant freely communicate his/her
    • wishes?
    • —
    • 2.Disclosure:
    • Rationale/purpose of study: Risks, benefits, alternatives, debriefing
    • 3.Voluntary participation: is the participant allowed to stop whenever they want
    • without penalty? Is he/she being coerced in any way (e.g., by power of
    • physician/researcher or incentives?
  18. Deception

    • Misleading

    • participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually
    • transpire.
  19. Do
    the results generalize
    • —Would the results apply to a real-life situation?
    • —Do the results apply only to college
    • students?
    • —What was the sample/setting?
    • —Was random sampling used?
  20. Control
    • —Try to eliminate
    • extraneous variables- variables that the experimenters are not interested in
    • but that may influence the dependent variable
    • —Experimental
    • setting/procedures
    • —Standardize
    • procedures and counterbalance conditions
    • —Participant variables
    • —Reason for random
    • assignment to different experimental conditions
  21. Random Selection/Samplin
    • A way of ensuring

    • that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in
    • the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
Card Set
PSYC 270