Chpt. 14 Communication

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  1. Communication
    Exchange of information between a sender and receiver and the inference (perception) of meaning between the individuals involved
  2. Communication Process (4)
    • 1)Sender encodes message, selects medium
    • 2)Message is transmitted though medium (text)
    • 3)Receiver decodes message+decides that feedback is needed
    • 4)Receiver sends feedback through a medium
  3. Sender
    Person wanting to communicate information-the message
  4. Receiver
    Person, group, or organization for whom the message is intended
  5. Encoding
    Translates thoughts into code or language that can be understood by others
  6. Selecting a Medium
    Depends on the nature of the message, its intended purpose, the audience, proximity to the audience, time constraints, and personal skills and preferences
  7. Decoding
    • -Occurs when receivers receive a message.
    • -Process of interpreting and making sense of a message
  8. Feedback
    The sender gets a reaction from the receiver
  9. Noise
    Anything that interferes with the transmission and understanding of a message
  10. Potential Breakdowns in Communication Process (6)
    • 1)Sender Barrier (forget/fear to sendmessge)
    • 2)Encoding Barrier (poor word choice)
    • 3)Medium Barrier (battery failure, busysignal)
    • 4)Decoding Barrier (poor language skills)
    • 5)Receiver Barrier (no message rec.)
    • 6)Feedback Barrier (blank stare)
  11. Barriers to Effective Communication (3)
    • 1)Personal Barriers
    • 2)Physical Barriers
    • 3)Semantic Barriers
  12. Personal Barriers (9)
    • 1)Variable skills in communicating effectively
    • 2)Variations in how info is processed+interpreted
    • 3)Variations in interpersonal trust
    • 4)Stereotypes+Prejudices
    • 5)Big egos
    • 6)Poor listening skills
    • 7)Natural tendency to evaluate others messages
    • 8)Inability to listen with understanding
    • 9)Nonverbal Communication
  13. 2) Physical Barriers (5)
    • 1)Time zone differences
    • 2)Telephone-line static
    • 3)Distance from others
    • 4)Crashed computers
    • 5)Office Design
  14. Semantics
    Study of words
  15. 3) Semantic Barriers
    • -Problems with language in communication
    • -Fueled by the growing trend to outsource customer service operations to foreign countries like India
  16. Jargon
    Represents language or terminology that is specific to a particular profession, group, or company
  17. Communication Competence
    The ability to communicate effectively in specific situations
  18. Communication styles (3)
    • 1) Assertive
    • 2) Aggressive
    • 3)Non-assertive
  19. 1) Assertive
    Pushing hard w/o attacking; permits others to influence outcome; expressive and self enhancing w/o intruding on others
  20. 2) Aggressive
    Taking advantage of others; expressive and self-enhancing at others expense
  21. Nonassertive
    Encouraging others to take advantage of us; inhibited; self-denying
  22. Nonverbal Communication
    • -Any message, sent or received independent of the written or spoken word
    • -Includes factors as use of time and space, distance between persons when conversing, use of color, dress, walking behavior, standing, positioning, seating arrangement, office locations and furnishings
  23. Sources of Nonverbal Communication (4)
    • 1)Body Movement and Gesturs
    • 2)Touch
    • 3)Facial Expressions
    • 4)Eye Contact
  24. Listening
    • -Process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages
    • -Requires cognitive attention and information processing
  25. Listening style:Appreciative
    Listens for pleasure, entertainment, or inspiration
  26. Listening Style: Empathetic
    Interprets messages by focusing on emotions and body language
  27. Listening Style: Comprehensive
    Organizes specific thoughts and actions and integrates this information by focusing on relationships among ideas
  28. Listening Style: Discerning
    Attempt to understand the main message and determine important points
  29. Listening Style: Evaluative
    Listen analytically and continually formulate arguments and challenges to what is being said
  30. Upward Communication
    Involves communicating with someone at a higher organizational level
  31. Downward Communication
    Occurs when someone at a higher level in the organization conveys information or a message downward to one or more others
  32. Horizontal Communication
    Flows among co-workers and between different work units, and its main purpose is coordination
  33. External Communication
    2 way flow of information between employees and a variety of stakeholders outside the organization
  34. Informal Communication Channels
    Do not follow the chain of command or organizational structure
  35. Grapevine
    Unofficial communication system of the informal organization
  36. Liaison Individuals
    Those who consistently pass along grapevine information to others
  37. Organizational Moles
    Those who use the grapevine to enhance their power and status
  38. Media Richness
    • -Involves the capacity of a given communication medium to convey information and promote understanding
    • -Based on feedback, channel, type of communication, and language source
  39. Contingency Model for Selecting Communication Media (3 zones)
    • 1)Overload Zone:medium provides more information than necessary
    • 2)Zone of Effective Communication
    • 3)Oversimplification Zone (medium does not provide necessary information)
  40. Zone of Effective Communication
    • 1)Impersonal Static Media:newsletter, bulletin board, computer report, financial statements, general email.
    • 2)Personal Static Media:memos, letters, personal email, voice mail.
    • 3)Interactive Media:telephone, video conference
Card Set
Chpt. 14 Communication
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