1. Define Fish.
    • Fish refers to the vertibrate and invertibrate animals that inhabit the aquatic habitat 
    • a distinct feature is that they respire via gils 
    • term also used to refer to the parts of these animals that we use as food
  2. what is a distinct feature of fish?
    they respire via gils
  3. What is brackish water?
    • lagoon
    • partly salty
  4. Fish are an excellent source of which nutrients?
    • protein
    • fat (essential FAs)
    • vitamins (B2, B6, B12, C, A, D)
    • minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Se, I)
  5. What is the world fish catch in millions of tons?
    >90 million tons
  6. What are the leading fish producing and exporting countries?
    • china
    • peru 
    • Japan
    • USA
    • Chili
  7. China's fish produciton bas been increasing. From1990- 2000 production has tripled, why?
    sophisticated harvesting methods
  8. What precent of fish captured will be used for food?
  9. Why will fish production increase?
    • growing populations, fish is a major source of animal protein especially in developing countries 
    • health benefits of fish vs. red meat
  10. About how many fish species are known? What precent of the species are consumed as food?
    • ~35,000 species known
    • 75-80% are consumed as food
  11. What are the different types of shell fish?
    • crustacia
    • molluscs
    • echinoderms
  12. What are some examples of crustacia (shell fish)
    • crabs
    • lobsters 
    • shrimp
    • crayfish
  13. what are the different types of molluscs (shell fish)
    • gastropods 
    • cephalopods
    • Bivalves
  14. what are some examples of echinoderms (shell fish)
    • seaurchin
    • seacucumber
    • starfish
  15. What are some examples of gastropods (moluscs, shell fish)
    • seasnails
    • whelles
    • limpat
  16. What are some examples of cephalopods (moluscs, shell fish)
    • squid
    • octopus
    • cattle fish
  17. What are some examples of bivalves(moluscs, shell fish)
    • oysters
    • clams
    • scallops
    • muscles
  18. What are true fish?
    • tend to have a torpido/elliptical shape
    • boney: cod, talipia, salmon
    • cartilaginous: sharks, rays, skates
  19. Give examples of the different ranges of flavor of fish.
    • mild flavor: sole, flounder, hoki, hake, halibut 
    • moderate: cod, lobster, scallops, oyster 
    • intense flavor: salmon, tuna, mackerel
  20. Give some examples of the different ranges of texture between fish species.
    • soft or delicate: anchovies, bass, porgy, herring, hake, sea urchins 
    • medium: cod, salmon, tilopia, snapper, shrimp
    • firmer: catfish, dogfish, strugeon, tuna, scallops, lobster
  21. What are Piokilotherms?
    • cold blooded
    • tend to maintain body temperature within 1°C of the ambient water temperature
    • shell fish and true fish
  22. what are endotherms?
    • have a body temperature much higher then ambient temperature ~20°C
    • white shark, sturgeon, tuna
  23. What % of fish are eaten fresh?
  24. What % of fish are frozen?
  25. What % of fish are canned?
  26. What % of fish are smoked/salted and dried marinated?
  27. What are non-food uses of fish?
    • fish meal 
    • fish oil 
    • bait
    • fertilizers
  28. What are some trash fish and why?
    • Herring (bones)
    • Mackerel (color and fat content) 
    • Tuna (bones) 
    • still have good nutritional value though
  29. What are health benefits of fish?
    • nutritive quality 
    • DHA (doccohexonic acid) brain lipid useful for brain development and CV system function- good for lowering blood CH
  30. What are some hazards of fish?
    • heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd, As) 
    • Fish allergens 
    • Toxins
    • Biogenic amines 
    • parasites
  31. What are some of the effects of heavy metals?
    • nausea 
    • vomiting
    • metallic taste in your mouth
    • renal degeneration
    • a variety of cancers
  32. What is the major allergic protein in fish?
  33. What are examples of biological amines? What fish are they found in high levels in?
    • His (Histidine --HO--> Histamine)
    • Tyr (Tyrosine --TO--> Tyramine) 

    Tuna, mackerel, herring
  34. What are the negative health effects of microalgea on shell fish?
    • microalgea release various metabolites such as domic acids that are abs. by the shellfish 
    • when the shellfish are consumed may cause health hazards
  35. What fish is particularly prone to parasites? 
    What do these parasites do?
    • Alaskan Pollock
    • parasites release proteases that make the structure soft
  36. T or F 
    proximate composition is similar for true fish and shell fish
  37. Why is there greater variation in fish composition then beef?
    variation is due to species difference, season of harvest, diet, nutritional status, sex, age, etc.
  38. What is high protein fish?
    • protein content ~28% 
    • anchovis
    • cod
    • tilapia 
    • snapper
    • salmon
    • halibut
  39. What are low protein fish?
    • ~6% 
    • catfish 
    • muscles 
    • oyster
    • flounder
  40. What is gout?
    gout - protein --> uric acid --> crystallizes in joints must avoid high protein food
  41. What are the seasonal variation in Herring?
    • protein content tends to be uniform throughout the year 
    • in the summer months when fish is actively feeding fat content is much higher
  42. What are the seasonal variation in Mackeral?
    • protein content stays uniform throughout the different seasons 
    • in the spawning season fat content declines b/c the reserves are used up for energy
  43. What are some high fat fish?
    • mackerel
    • herring
    • sardines 
    • salmon
  44. Where do high fat fish tend to swim?
    • swim closer to the surface 
    • pelagic
  45. Where is the fat in high fat fish stored?
    fat tends to be deposited in the muscle and around the belly cavity
  46. What is the fat content in low fat fish?
  47. Where is the fat stored in low fat fish?
    in the liver
  48. what are some low fat fish?
    • cod
    • halibut
    • bass
    • porgy
  49. Where do low fat fish swim?
    • swim closer to the bottom of the ocean 
    • demersal fish
  50. What is the chemical composition of fish closely related to?
    • intake
    • migratory behavior
    • sex
    • age
    • spawning
  51. What are the two layers of fish skin?
    • outter epidermis 
    • inner epidermis
  52. What are the characteristics of the outer epidermis?
    • higher moisture content
    • PL and mucosal cells 
    • numerous gland cells that produce the Mucopolysaccharides
    • rich mucous responsible for the slimy surface
  53. What are characteristics of the slime produced by the outer epidermis.
    • mainly micropolysaccharides 
    • makes them difficult to catch- defense 
    • makes hard for microorganisms to attack
Card Set
fish flashies