1. Diagnosis of external parasites (burrowing mites)
    Skin Scraping
  2. infestation with mites
  3. morphology of mites
    very small head, need microscope to identify, feed on blood, lymph fluid, skin cells, and permanent parasite (usually lives on host entire lifecycle)
  4. Sarcoptic Mange
    Sarcoptes scabiei
  5. sarcoptes scabiei
    scabies, zoonotic, a burrowing mite
  6. Sarcoptes scabiei habitat
    • superficial layers of skin
    • typically around haed/ears/elbows/abdomen (areas of less hair)
    • heavy infections can be everywhere
  7. Scabies mites host
    • any animal, some varieties are species specific
    • rare in cats and horses
    • reportable disease in cattle
  8. Sarcoptes scabiei indentification
    round to oval shape, 8 legs, eggs=oval shaped, legs have long unjointed stalks with suckers on end
  9. clinical signs of sarcotes scabiei
    very contagious, extremely pruritic, red and pimply skin, starts to get thick and scabby, hair loss because of self-trauma, scabs become thicker, form folds.
  10. Sarcotes scabiei treatment
    ivermectin injections, mite dips, treatment of secondary infections
  11. hard to find, easy to treat
    Sarcotes scabiei
  12. easy to find, hard to treat
    Demodex spp.
  13. Demodex hosts
    very species specific, dogs usually, if in cats, higher frequency in Burmese and Siamese
  14. Demodex habitat
    hair follicles and sebaceous glands and can be deep into the skin
  15. demodex indentification
    cigar shapped, 8 legs, and normal flora of the skin in small numbers
  16. Demodex transmission
    direct contact, nursing, increased numbers during stress or immunosuppression, immunodeficiencis can result in increased numbers of organisms and disease state
  17. clinical signs of Demodex
  18. –condition - termed demodicosis
    typically occurs at age 3-6 months, often starts at face and feet then moves, hair loss, red thickening skin:referred to as “red mange”, NOT itchy, and can be localized (affecting specific areas of the body- typically face) or generalized throughout the body.
  19. Demodex Treatment
    • can be very difficult and long process (mites are so deep in skin that pesticides may not reach and kill them immediately)
    • Ivermectin takes long time, mitaban dips may be used, but can take 4-6 weeks+ at 2 week intervals, euthanais is sometimes the only option
  20. ear mite
    Otodectes cynotis
  21. Otodectes cynotis host and habitat
    • common in cat and ferrets but can be in dogs
    • ear canal, usually in both ears, can be tail, face
  22. Otodectes cynotis transmission
    • direct contact
    • highly contagious
  23. clinical signs of Otodectes cynotis
    itchy red ears, head shaking (can lead to hematoma), inflamed ears, may be swollen and warm to touch, brown to black dried, crumbly debris in ear (looks like coffee grounds), can cause convulsions in cats
  24. Otodectes cynotis diagnosis
    swab ear, place in mineral oil on slide, examine under scope, viewed as white moving objects in external canal throughotoscope, short unjointed stalks with suckers on legs, body can resemble a bell pepper, skin scrapping
  25. Otodectes cynotis treatment
    topical insecticide in ear, diligent cleaning and flushing of ear (by owner), ivermectin injection may be used, though not labeled for this purpose-repeat after 2 weeks, takes about 1 month to clear up, or revolution works very well in cats, and sometimes antibiotics and anti-inflammatories.
  26. Ear cytology treatments
    • antibiotics
    • Otomax, tresaderm, tritop, panalog, baytril otic, epi-otic, oti-clens, oti-calm, and diligent cleaning on the owners part.
    • if to severe, animal may require ear flushing
  27. Walking dandruff
    Cheyletiella spp.
  28. Cheyletiella host and identification
    • rabbit, dog, cat, people
    • bell pepper shaped body, comb-like structures at each leg tip, has prominent hook-like mouthparts
  29. clinical signs of Cheyletiella
    large white flakes of "dandruff" and skin dry and scaly
  30. Cheyletiella diagnosis
    • use scotch tape and put on slide
    • will see eggs
  31. Cheyletiella treatment
    • topical insecticides
    • never dip a rabbit
    • must treat environment
  32. Feline Scabies Mite
    Notoedres cati
  33. Notoedres cati characteristics
    head and face mites of cats, burrowing mite, sometimes infests rabbits(not often), temporaril on people, entire life cycle spent on host, legs:unjointed stalks w/ suckers present: similar to Sarcotes mites, eggs: oval
  34. Mites of cattle and horses
    • Sarcoptes-same as small animal
    • demodex-smae as small animal
    • Psoroptes-similar to Sarcoptes
    • Chorioptes-leg mange
  35. Chewing or biting louse
  36. Mallophaga characteristics
    big head, broad/flat, head wider then thorax, yellowish body
  37. sucking louse (large animals)
  38. Anoplura characteristics
    see in dogs, not cats, birds, smaller head, more pointed and narrower, dowdier thorax, large than Mallophaga
  39. Mallophaga meaning
    • mallo=wool
    • phaga=eat
  40. Anoplura meaning
    • anopl=unarmed
    • ura=tail
  41. Lice general characteristics
    wingless, flat-can not squish, 3 pairs of legs, very host specific, permanent parasite
  42. Lice eggs
  43. hatched egg lice
  44. Nymph will molt or matue how many times
    • 3 time
    • N1, N2, and N3
  45. lice transmission
    direct contact, transported on fomites (combs, brushes, blamkets, hats), will die in 7 days if there is no host
  46. lice habitat and symptoms
    • inside ear, between legs, on tail
    • itching, poor hair coat, alopecia, possibly anemmia, will probably see dipylidium caninum proglottids (lice is the intermediate host)
  47. lice diagnosis and treatment
    • see adults and presence of nits (see by combing)
    • insecticides topically applied, most flea products will kill lice
  48. biting louse of dogs
    Trichodectes canis
  49. sucking louse of cats
    Felicola subrostratus
  50. sucking louse of dogs
    Linognathus setosus
Card Set
Mites and Lice