Hierarchy of Needs
Rare behaviors reinforce common ones. Behavioral switch experiment
Effect of pay on monkey puzzles Campbell et al. – College students
Extrinsic – requires reinforcement from outside. Intrinsic – reinforcement comes from the task itself
Motive acquisition theory, 1 motivation = arousal
McClelland -- Atkinson
two factor theory of emotional differences, brain trying to make sense of your body's physiological response to a situation
Schachter and Singer
stimulus-->specific phys state-->experience of emotion
stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system, which then produces emotion in brain
stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain
performance increases with physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a point. When levels of arousal become too high, performance decreases.
alarm, resistance, recovery
Selye's adaptation syndrome
developed the first intelligence test to allow educators to develop remedial programs for those children who lagged behind their peers
Simon and Binet
developed a school readiness test in which the intellectual quotient (IQ) was found by dividing the mental age by the chronological age.
The Raven’s Progessive Matrices test is designed to measure nonverbal reasoning and according to them would asses fluid intelligence
- high crystallized intelligence would be associated with a high score on a test measuring acquired knowledge and is best assessed with a VOCABULARY TEST
Horn and Cattell
g, general intelligence
people have several primary mental abilities, not just general intelligence
Contents, operations, products
Creativity was not previously measured as IQ
Convergent thinking -- finding the “best”, “right”, answer.
Divergent thinking -- finding many possible answers
research is responsible for the better understanding of the humansexual response cycle
Masters and Johnson
triarchic theory, practical intelligence, adapting to existing environments
“Origins of intelligence of the child Rigorous observation as a the means of developing his theory"
Concrete operations stage
Formal operations stage
AVOIDANT -- pays little attention to the mother when she is in the room, or when she leaves. If distressed, mother and stranger are equally comforting.
SECURE -- distressed when mother leaves the room, goes to her when she returns. Is secure around strangers, but prefers mother.
RESISTANT -- type simultaneously seeks mother and avoids physical contact.
6 stages in 3 groups of 2
Basic trust vs mistrust
Autonomy vs shame, doubt
Initiative vs guilt
Industry vs. inferiority
Identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Ego integrity vs. despair
Internalization -- The majority of development is a result of what a child learned from the environment Zone of potential development -- A child’s potential is generally something greater than the demonstrated ability. Environment puts constraints on the child’s capabilities