Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 11

  1. Involuntary release of seminal fluid from the penis during sleep
    Noctrunal emissions
  2. Posterior part of external femal reporductive organs
  3. Small ridges or folds of tissue in the female vagina and on the male scrotum
  4. Collective term for all the female external reproductive organs
  5. Promote lubrication of the vagina for coitus
    Bartholin's glands
  6. Enable the erection of the penis for coitus
    Corpus spongiosum
  7. Secrete testosterone in the male
    Leydig cells
  8. Secrete a substance to keep nipples soft during breastfeeding
    Montgomery's tubercles
  9. initial pernatal development of the reproductive organs is similar for both males and females.  If critical part of the Y chromosome is not present at conception, female reproductive structures will develop.
  10. Puberty is the time when the reproductive organs become fully functional and secondary sex characteristics develop.
  11. Puberty begins about 6 months to 1 year earlier in girls than in boys, although a girls early growth spurt makes it seem that she begins puberty much earlier than a boy.
  12. Girls are generally shorter than boys because they begin their growth spurt at an earlier age and complete it more quickly than boys
  13. Girls often do not ovulate in early menstrual cycles, although it is possible for them to ovulate even before the first one.  A sexually active girl can become pregnant before her first mestrual period.
  14. The onset of puberty is more subtle in boys than in girls and begins with growth of the testes and penis
  15. Nocturnal emission of seminal fluids may be distressing to boys unless they are prepared for this normal event
  16. At birth a girl has all the ova she will ever have.  New ova are not formed after birth and most are depleted when a woman reaches the climacteric
  17. The female reproductive cycle is often called the menstrual ovaries and uterine endometrium to prepare foe a fertilized ovum. The character of cevical mucus also changes to encourage fertilization
  18. Breast size is unrelated to glandular tissue or to the quantity or quality of milk a woman can produce for her infant after childbirth. Breast size is primarly related to the amount of fat present
  19. For normal sperm to form a mans testes must be cooler than his core body temperature
  20. Seminal fluids secreted by the seminal vesicles prostate and bulbourethral glands nourish and protect the sperm enhance their motility and ensure that most sperm are deposited in the vagina during sexual intercourse.
  21. How is Sex

    • pairs

    • • pair
    • of sex chromosomes


  22. How
    the Fetus’ Sex
    is Determined
    • Mother’s
    • ovum----X

    • •+
    • Father’s
    • Sperm—X or Y (the short arm)=

    • •Baby
    • (fetus)

    • –XX
    • (girl)

    • XY
    • (boy
  23. Initiation
    of Sexual Maturation
    • •Not
    • all factors known

    • •Maturing
    • child’s
    • hypothalamus gradually produces more GnRH

    • •Stimulates
    • anterior pituitary to increase production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • and luteinizing hormone (LH
  24. If an X-bearing spermatozoon fertilizes the ovum the offspring is aN?
  25. When does sexual development begin?
    At conception when the gentic sex is determined by union of an ovum and sperm.
  26. THe mothers ovum carries a single ___ chromosome.  Each of the fathers spermatozoa carries eithere and ___ chormosome or a ___ chromosome.
  27. When do diffrences between males and females appear in internal structures.
    During the 7th week.
  28. When do external genitalia start to look diffrent?
    the 9th week
  29. When is differntiaion of the sexual organs complete
    12 weeks
  30. Which hormone causes development of male sex organs and external genitalia and also results in absence of female sex characterisics?
  31. THe male has which genitic make up?
  32. What are gonads?
    Reproductive or sex glands
  33. What stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to produce hormones that will stimulate sex homone production?
    the hypothalamus
  34. What is puberty?
    The time durin which the reproductive organs become fully functional. it is not a single event but a series of changes occurring over several years during late childhood and early adolescence.
  35. Initiation
    of Sexual Maturation
    • •Not
    • all factors known

    • •Maturing
    • child’s
    • hypothalamus gradually produces more GnRH

    • •Stimulates
    • anterior pituitary to increase production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • and luteinizing hormone (LH
  36. What hormone does teh hypothalamus is capable of secreting?
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to initiate puberty.
  37. at what age does the maturing childs hypothalamus gradually increase produciton of GnRH?
    beginning at 9-12 years of age
  38. What is a gamete?
    reporductive cells.
  39. The sex hormones also induce development of?
    Secondary sex characteristics( physical diferences between mature males and females not directly related to reproduction)
  40. how much older are girls than boys when they begin hormonal changes of puberty?
    6 months to 1 year.
  41. Changes of puberty occur in an orderly sequence in both sexes.
  42. Female
    secondary sex characteristics
    • •Breast
    • development—1st
    • noticeable change

    • •Pelvis
    • widens/fat deposited in hips

    • •Pubic/axillary
    • hair

    • •Skeletal
    • growth and cessation

    • •External
    • genitalia enlarge
  43. Menarche—onset
    of menstruation
    • •Average
    • age—13 years

    • •Normally
    • occurs 2-2 ½ years after   Tanner 2

    • •Initial
    • cycles may be irregular and scant
  44. As the girls matures the anterior pituitary gland secretes increasing amounts of what?
    FSH and LH in response to the hypothalmic secrtion of GnRH, these hormones stimulate secreation of estrogen and progesteron by the ovary
  45. When do the first noticible changes of pubery occur in females?
    8-13 yEARS the first menstral period occurs 2-2 1/2 later with an average range of 9-16 years.
  46. Menarche—onset
    of menstruation
    • •Average
    • age—13 years

    • •Normally
    • occurs 2-2 ½ years after   Tanner 2

    • •Initial
    • cycles may be irregular and scant
  47. What is Secondary
    • •Absence
    • of menstruation for at least 3 cycles once menstruation was established for at
    • least 6 consecutive months

    • •Common
    • in thin or athletic females

    • •Pregnancy
    • ranks as a common cause

    • •May
    • be due to excess androgen excretion
  48. What are the earliest outward change of puberty in females?
    Breast changes
  49. How does pubic hair look during puberty?
    Downy at first but becomes thicker as puberty progresses.
  50. Womans Axillary hair appears near the sme time as?
    Mecarche (mestrual onset)
  51. What does estrogen do to female skeletal growth?
    girls grow taller for severl years 

    causes the epiphyses (growth areas of the bone) to unite with the shaft of the bones: this ususally stops growth
  52. girls external genitala enlarge as fat is deposited in the mons pubis lavia majora and labia minora.  The vagina uterus fallopian tubes and ovaries grow larger.  vaginal mucosa changes become more resistant to trauma
  53. Can a sexually active girl get pregenant before the first menstrual period?
  54. Early menstural cycles are not usually fertile because ovulation occurs inconsistantly.
  55. What is primary amenorrhea?
    Delayed onset of menstruation ususally if the girls periods have not begun by the age of 16
  56. What is amenorrhea?
    abscence of menstration: also considered primary if the girl is more than 1 year older than her mother or sisters where when their menacrche occurred.
  57. Male
    secondary sex characteristics
    • •Body
    • composition changes due to testosterone resulting in increased muscle mass that
    • exceeds females’
    • muscle mass by 50%
  58. Additional
    male secondary sex characteristics
    • •Skeletal
    • growth

    • •Voice
    • changes—deepens

    • •Body
    • hair growth follows progression—





    • Chest
    • and back
  59. Secretion of GnRH by the hypothalamus begins increasing as a boy enters puberty, stimulating secretion of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary.  LH and FSH then stimulate secretion of testosterone and ecentually spermatogenesis, or formation of male gametes (sperm) in the testes.  Testosterone stimulates development of a boys reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics.
  60. What is the first outward puberty changes in males?
    Growth of testes between 9 1/2 and 17 years. Growth of the penis follow about a year after testicular growth. the skin of scrotum thins and darkens
  61. What are nocturnal emissions?
    Wet dreams they are common during adolescene
  62. Testosterone causes boys to develop a greater muscle mass than a female.  At maturity a mans muscle mass exceeds a womans by 50%
  63. What causes voice changes in men during puberty?
    hypertrophy of teh laryngeal mucosa and enlargment of the larynx.  before reaching the deeper voice boys experience cracking or squeaking of the voice.
  64. the height limiting effect of _______in the male is not as strong as that of estrogen in female so boys grow in stature for several years more than girls
  65. What is the climacteric?
    physical and emotional changes that occur at the end of the reproductive period.  A womans ability to reproduce decreases over a period of years.
  66. What age does climacteric occur?
    45-50 years old
  67. What is menopause?
    final menstrual period
  68. what is perimenopause
    the time from onset of symptoms associated with teh climacteric until at least 1 year after the last menstrual period
  69. Primary
    sex characteristics are?
    • Maturation of sex organs
    • responsible for reproduction

    • –Girls—ova
    • production

    • –Boys—sperm
    • production
  70. What are Additional
    male secondary sex characteristics
    • Skeletal
    • growth

    • •Voice
    • changes—deepens

    • •Body
    • hair growth follows progression—





    • Chest
    • and back
  71. Comparison
    of puberty onset ages

    • –Breast
    • development 1st
    • outward sign

    • –Varies
    • from ages 8-13 years

    • –First
    • menstrual period- 2-2.5 yrs
    • after breast development


    • –9.5
    • yrs-growth
    • of testes

    • –9.2-13.7
    • yrs-
    • penile development
  72. More

    • •Starts
    • 1-2 yrs before boys

    • •Growth
    • spurt with early puberty in response to estrogen

    • •Estrogen
    • causes closing of epiphysis of long bones


    • •Begins
    • 1 yr after girls and last until 20’s

    • •Testosterone
    • causes growth spurt

    • •Testosterone
    • causes closing of epiphysis of long bones
  73. Decline
    in fertility Is?
    • •Ability to reproduce declines with
    • age

    •Usual age 45-50

    • •Menopause refers to the final
    • menstrual cycle

    •Perimenopause marks the era before menopause

    • •Men see a more gradual decline in
    • virility
  74. What are Male
    primary sex characteristics
    •Testes- male gonads

    • •Secrete primary hormone
    • testosterone

    •Sperm formation  (spermatogenesis)

    • •Testosterone secreted in even
    • pattern

    •Begins production @ puberty
  75. LAYERS


  76. the Ovaries are?
    • Resemble an almond in size and
    • shape

    •Female gonads

    • •Function in sex hormone secretion
    • and maturation of the ovum
  77. What is the vulva?
    collectively the external female reproductive organs
  78. What is the mons pubis?
    The rounded fleshy prominece over they sympysis pubis that forms the anterior border of the external reproductive organs.  It is covered with varying amounts of pubic hair.
  79. What are the labia majora and labia Minora?
    THe labia majora are two rounded fleshy folds of tissue that extend from the mons pubis t ther perineum, has darker pigmentation and covered with pubic hair. protects mre fragile tissues of the external genitalia

    The labia minora run parallel to and within the labia majora it extends from teh clitoris anteriolry and merge posteriorly to form the fourchette or posterior rim of the vagina introiuts. No pubic hair and highly vascular.
  80. Did
    you know
    • •Immature ova are present at birth
    • and represent the baby’s lifetime supply

    • –Birth—one
    • million ova


    • –Number
    • released during reproductive lifetime—about 400

    • –Menopause—ova
    • have regressed or have been depleted
  81. THe Fallopian
    Oviducts about 8-14 cm by 2-8 mm.
  82. What are the four divisions of the fallopian tubes?
    The interstitial portion, which runs into the uterine cavity and lies within the uterine wall

    THE isthmus, which is the narrow part of the tube adjacent to the uterus

    THe ampulla, which is the wider area of th tube lateral to the isthmus where ferilization occurs

    The infundibulum, which is the wide funnel shaped terminal end of the tube. Fimbriae are finger like processes surrounding teh infundibulum.
  83. Are the fallopian tubes connected to the ovaries?
  84. What moves the ovum into the tube?
    Wavelike motions of the fimbiae which are very near teh ovary.
  85. How long after conception do the tubal isthmus remain contracted?
    3 Days after conception to allow thefertilized ovum to develop within the tube
  86. What are the two functions of the ovaries?
    To produce sex hormones and to develop an ovum to maturity during each reproductive cycle.
  87. THe Ovarian
    • •Divided
    • into 3 parts—usual duration 28 days

    • •Follicular
    • or FIRST part of cycle about 14 days (1st day of period)

    • •Mid-cycle
    • or ovulatory phase ( 2 days before ovulation there is a LH surge and the ova is
    • released)

    • •Luteal
    • is the LATE OR LAST part of the cycle
  88. Timing
    is everything with the ovarian cycle?
    • Ovum is receptive to fertilization
    • for 12-72 hours after it is released from the ovary

    • •Sperm are viable for 24-72 hours
    • after ejaculation
  89. The Endometrial cycle refers to the way the endometrium changes
  90. What are Key
    components of endometrial cycle
    Length is 28 days

    •Day one is the onset of menses

    •Estrogen, progesterone, and corpus luteum exert effects on the endometrium
  91. What are the 3
    stages of endometrial cycle


  92. What else is the female reproductive cycle called?
    Menstrual cycle?
  93. What is the female reproductive cycle?
    describes the regular and recurrent changes in the anterior pituitary secretion ovaries and uterine endometrium that are designed to prepare the body for pregnancy.
  94. Summary
    of reproductive cycle
    •Day 1- menses onset

    • •Days 1-14  midcycle 
    • (ovulation)

    •Secretory phase

    • •Menstrual phase- usual blood loss
    • is 40ml over 5 days. Flow may last from 5-7 days. Usual cycle 28 days but may
    • range 20-45 days
  95. The sex of an infant will be female unless?
    The y chromosome is received from the father
  96. The primary purpose of (GnRH) is to stimulate?
    Secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland
  97. THe first outward change of puberty in girls is?
    Enlargment and development of the breast
  98. the girl who is most likley to have secondary amenorrhea?
    Brittany 17 years old who is preparing for competition in a national gymnastic tournament
  99. Males are usually taller than females when they reach their adult height because their?
    Rapid increase in height begins later in puberty and continues for a longer time.
  100. The layer of uterine muscle that is most active during labor is composed of what kind of fibers?
  101. Layers of uterine tissue that responds to cyclic changes in hormones secreted by the pituitary gland is the?
  102. Conditions that cause the fallopian tubes to be narrower than normal may result in?
    Implantation of a fertilized ovum within the tube
  103. Extra follicles that remain after ovulation?
    Are never active in another reproductive cycle
  104. Menstration occurs because the?
    Hormone stimulation from the corpus luteum ceases
  105. Milk is manufactured within the _______of the breast?
  106. The primary purpose of the cremaster muscle is to?
    Keep the testes cooler than the rest of the body
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Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 11
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