Unit 6

  1. What percentage of time is represented by the Paleozoic Era since the Precambrian?
  2. What type of fossil was used to redefine the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in 1991?
    Body fossil of the trilobite Olenellus
  3. Sort the 7 periods of the Paleozoic Era in order from oldest to youngest
    • Cambrian
    • Ordovician
    • Silurian
    • Devonian
    • Mississippian
    • Pennsylvanian
    • Permian
  4. How does the US subdivide the Carboniferous Period?
    • Mississippian
    • Pennsylvanian
  5. What was Laurentia?
    Ancestral North America
  6. In the Early Paleozoic, where was Texas located (in reference to the equator)?
    South of the Equator
  7. What is eustatic sea level?
  8. Describe an epicontinental sea
    widespread, shallow seas that transgress or regress over craton
  9. What is a transgressive sea?
    a rise in sea level
  10. Describe (draw) a rock sequence associated with a transgressive sea?
  11. What is a regressive sea?
    a fall in sea level
  12. Describe (draw) a rock sequence associated with a regressive sea
  13. In general, what can be said about average sea levels during the Cambrian as compared to today?
    much higher
  14. What was the transcontinental arch?
    series of large, late Cambrian island arcs that extended to southern New Mexico and West Texas
  15. Where do we find Cambrian age rocks in Texas?
    • Bliss Sandstone (El Paso)
    • Enchanted Rock (Central Texas)
    • Hickory Sandstone (Mason)
  16. What is the Cambrian explosion?
    many different fossils appearing at once for this time
  17. Why would animals with protective shells be more likely to survive?
    Harder to for predators to get to
  18. What is meant by "unknown phyla" of the Cambrian?
    have no living organisms with their basic body plan
  19. Which geologic period had the most diverse phyla?
  20. What is the significance of the Cambrian Chinese fossil site and it's fossils?
    • Best Early Cambrian fossils found in China
    • The fossils are really complex considering  life is just beginning on Earth
  21. Why are the Burgess Shale and its fossils so important to understanding the Cambrian Period?
    Best examples of soft bodied flora and fauna known
  22. What represents the first known vertebrate?
  23. What period is known as the Age of the Trilobites?
  24. What marks the end of the Cambrian?
    Colder temperatures and mass extinction of the trilobites
  25. What type of tectonic zone is associated with orogenies?
  26. Which mountains were formed with the Taconic Orogeny?
    Appalachian Mountains
  27. Why do mountains persist for hundreds of millions of years despite erosion?
    Because they have deep roots.  As erosion happens the roots are pushed upwards
  28. What do we call the deeper parts of mountains?
    mountain roots
  29. Why is the Ordovician Ellenberger Formation important to Texas?
    associated with 90 large oil fields and 50 major gas fields
  30. When did plants become widespread in the seas?
  31. Which plants may have invaded land during the Ordovician?
  32. Why is the Silurian Period Fusselman Dolostone important to Texas?
  33. What major evolutionary step did fish undergo during the Silurian?
  34. Which was the first life form that moved into land?
  35. What was the first animals life form that moved onto land?
  36. During what period did this land invasion take place?
  37. At the end of the Devonian, Laurentia is now called________
  38. Which state contains a large portion of the mini-continent Antler Highlands?
  39. What mineral is associated with the Antler Highlands?
  40. What period is called the Age of Fish?
  41. What is a tetrapod?
  42. What advantage might a lobe-fin give to a fish?
  43. Besides insects, which was the second group of animals to invade the land?
  44. When did Earth's second mass extinction occur?
  45. Name an important Mississippian Period formation found in Texas and why is it important?
  46. What type of eggs had to evolve for animals to advance to other environments?
  47. Which Period is known as the Age of the Insects?
  48. How long has cockroaches been around?
  49. Which Texas uplift is associated with the Ouachita Orogeny?
  50. Which widespread energy "mineral" was formed in the Pennsylvanian Period?
  51. Where are Pennsylvanian Period age rocks found in Texas?
  52. Name the three orogenies associated with the Appalachian Mountains?
  53. How long will Earth's fourth ice age last in the Permian?
  54. Which thick evaporate deposit was formed in the Texas Permian basin?
  55. Which Texas mountain cliff is an ancient Permian reef?
  56. What valuable resources is found in the Texas Permian basin?
  57. What do Seymouria, Eryops, and Diplocaulus have in common?
  58. Which carnivorous mammal-like retiles occurred in the Permian Period and also in Texas?
  59. Where have Dimetrodons been found in Texas?
  60. What can be considered mammal-like?
  61. What happened at the end of the Permian (life forms)?
  62. During which three Paleozoic Periods did Earth suffer major extinctions?
  63. Which of the three was the worst?
  64. What is the probable cause of this extinction?
  65. What defines a mass extinction?
  66. What is the effect of extinction of a major dominant species?
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Unit 6
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