Science: Genetic Engineering

  1. Altering the DNA of an organism to produce desired traits
    Genetic Engineering
  2. Crossing individuals that have a desired characteristic
    Selective Breeding
  3. What is an example of Selective Breeding
    Dairy cows for increased production of milk
  4. Crossing individuals with similar characteristics so that those characteristics will appear in the offspring
  5. What is an example of Inbreeding?
    Purebred dogs
  6. What is the problem with Inbreeding?
    Recessive genetic defects may be passed down
  7. Crossing dissimilar indviduals
  8. Hybrids are hardier than parents
    Hybrid Vigor
  9. What is an example of Hybridization?
    (and it's 3 pro's)
    • Hybrid corn:
    • -Disease resistant
    • -Yield more corn per acre
    • -Has higher nutritional value
  10. Change DNA that is not found naturally in population
  11. Causes mutation through agents such as chemical or radiation
  12. 3 Examples of Mutations?
    • Bacteria
    • Seedless Oranges
    • Hairless MIce
  13. Treatment of disorders using engineered genes into patients cells so they can produce proteins that they could not before
    Gene Therapy
  14. 3 Ways to Modify Genes?
    • Somatic Gene Therapy
    • Germline
    • Cloning
  15. Ways to Modify Genes:
    Body cells, not passed to offspring
    Somatic Gene Therapy
  16. Ways to Modify Genes:
    Sex cells, passed to offspring
  17. Ways to Modify Genes:
    Copy specific DNA, cell or organism
  18. Another word for DNA cloning?
    Recombinant DNA technology
  19. DNA from 2 sources is combined
    DNA cloning
  20. Proteins that cut DNA at a specific sequence
    Restriction Enzyme
  21. Small circular DNA molecules in bacteria
  22. What was Recombinant DNA technology first used with?
  23. Steps to Make Recombinant DNA?:
    • 1. Isolate plasmid from bacterium
    • 2. Cut with restriction enzyme creating "sticky ends"
    • 3. Insert gene of interest
    • 4. Put new plasmid in bacterium and it will replicate and produce proteins
  24. What are the Benefits of Recombinant Bacteria?
    • 1. Bacteria can make human insulin or human growth hormone.
    • 2. Bacteria can be engineered to "eat" oil spills.
    • 3. Cancer Treatment
  25. What is an example of Plants that are genetically modified?
    Frost-resistant strawberries with gene from cold-water fish
  26. What percent of food in the supermarket is genetically modified?
  27. What are 3 Pro's to Genetically Modified Plants?
    • Disease-Resistant
    • Insect-Resistant
    • Hardier Fruit
  28. How do you create a Genetically Modified Plant?
    • 1. Create recombinant bacteria with desired gene
    • 2. Allow the bacteria to "infect" the plant cells
    • 3. Desired gene is inserted into plant chromosomes
  29. What are 2 types of cloning?
    • Therapeutic
    • Reproductive
  30. Cloning that produces human embryos for use in research
    Therapeutic Cloning
  31. Blank cells found in umbilical cord and bone marrow
    Stem Cells
  32. These have the ability to change to certain cell determined by surrounding tissue
    Stem Cells
  33. Cloning that creates an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another
    Reproductive Cloning
  34. Example of Reproductive Cloning
    Dolly the sheep
  35. What are the Stages (8) of the creation of Dolly?
    • 1. Cells collected from a sheep's udder.
    • 2. The nucleus is removed from an unfertilized egg of a second sheep.
    • 3. An udder cell is inserted into the egg with no nucleus
    • 4. The insertion is successful
    • 5. An electrical charge is supplied to fusion occurs
    • 6. Cells begin to divide
    • 7&8. Embryo is placed into a third sheep, the surrogate mother
  36. What are the pro's of cloning?
    • Cure human diseases
    • Crate animal organs
    • Create animals that are disease resistant
    • More consistent food products
    • Save endangered species
  37. What are the cons cloning?
    • Use technology to clone humans
    • Expensive
    • Not efficient
  38. Is cloning asexual or sexual?
  39. False facts about cloning:
    Genetic Make-up is altered
    Mutants are created
    Clones are unhealthy
    Possible to recreate dead people
  40. True cloning facts:
    Plant cloning has been around for thousands of years
    Farm animal cloning has been around for over 20 years
    Cloned animals are save to eat and raise
  41. When was the Human Cloning Prohibition Act passed?
  42. What is the Criminal Penalty for Cloning humans?
    Up to 10 years in prison
  43. What is the civil penalty for Cloning humans?
    1 million dollar fine
  44. Contains foreign DNA
    Transgenic Organisms
  45. Desired DNA is added to an egg cell
    Transgenic Organisms
  46. An example of a Transgenic Animal and how it is good for humans.
    Mice, we can use to study the human immune system
  47. Produce large amounts of protein quickly and inexpensively
    Transgenic Bacteria
  48. What is an example of Transgenic Bacteria? and what does it do?
    • Interferon
    • -Helps protect cancer patients from viruses due to a weakened immune system from chemo therapy.
  49. Produces plants that create natural insecticides and nitrogen nutrients
    Transgenic Plants
  50. What is an example of a Transgenic Plant?
    Tomatoes that don't spoil as quickly
  51. Examples of DNA samples?
    • Body tissue
    • Hair
    • Blood
    • Saliva
  52. Reasons for DNA Fingerprinting?
    • Criminal Identifications
    • Paternity or Maternity
    • Personal Identifications
    • Exoneration of Criminals
  53. What does PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) allow scientists to do?
    To make many copies of a piece of DNA
  54. Steps (3) of The Polymerase Chain Reaction?
    • 1. Heat the DNA so it "unzips".
    • 2. Add the nitrogen bases
    • 3. Allow DNA to cool so the strands can zip together
  55. Steps (5) of DNA fingerprinting
    • 1. Get sample of DNA
    • 2. Cut DNA using restriction enzymes
    • 3. Transfer DNA to nylon sheet on gel and soak overnight
    • 4. Add radioactive probes to produce pattern
    • 5. Compare DNA fingerprint to unknown sample
  56. What helps solve violent crimes in FBI labratorys?
Card Set
Science: Genetic Engineering