Chapter 11

  1. acute pain
    paint that is sudden in onset, usually subsides when treated, and typically occurs over less than a 6 week period
  2. addiction
    • a primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease whose development is influenced by genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors
    • same as psychologic dependence
  3. adjuvant analgesic drugs
    drugs that are added as a second drug for combined therapy with a primary drug and may have additive or independent analgesic properties or both
  4. agonist
    substance that binds to a receptor and causes a response
  5. agonists-antagonists
    • substances that bind to a receptor and cause a partial response that is not as strong as that caused by an agonists 
    • also known as a partial agonist
  6. analgesics ceiling effect
    what occurs when a given pain drug no longer effectively controls a patient's pain despite the administration of the highest safe dosages
  7. antagonist
    a drug that binds to a receptor and prevents (blocks) a response
  8. analgesics
    • medications that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness 
    • painkillers
  9. breakthrough pain
    pain that occurs between doses of pain medications
  10. cancer pain
    pain resulting form any of a variety of causes related to cancer and/or the metastasis of cancer
  11. central pain
    pain resulting from any disorder that causes central nervous system damage
  12. chronic pain
    • persistent or recurring pain that is often difficult to treat
    • includes any pain lasting longer than 3 to 6 months, pain lasting longer than 1 month after healing of an acute tissue injury or pain that accompanies a nonhealing tissue injury
  13. deep pain
    • pain that occurs in tissues below skin level 
    • opposite of superficial pain
  14. gate theory
    • most common and well-described theory of pain transmission and pain relief
    • uses a gate model to explain how impulses from damaged tissues are sensed in the brain
  15. narcotics
    medically used controlled substances and in legal settings to refer to any illicit or street drugs
  16. neuropathic pain
    pain that results for a disturbance of function or pathologic change in a nerve
  17. nocieption
    processing of pain signals in the brain that gives rise to the feeling of pain
  18. nocieptors
    subclass of sensory nerves that transmit pain signals to the CNS from other body parts
  19. nonopioid analgesics
    analgesics that aren't classified as opioids
  20. NSAIDs
    large, chemically diverse group of drugs that are analgesics and also possess anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity but aren't steroids
  21. opioid analgesics
    synthetic drugs that bind to opiate receptors to relieve pain but aren't themselves derived from the opium plant
  22. opioid naive
    describes patients who are receiving opioid analgesics fro the first time and who therefore aren't accustomed to their effects
  23. opioid tolerance
    • normal physiologic condition that results form long-term opioid use, in which larger doses of opioids are required to maintain the same level of analgesia and in which abrupt discontinuation of the drug results in withdrawal symptoms
    • same as physical dependence
  24. opioid tolerant
    • opposite of opioid naive
    • escribes patients who have been receiving opioid analgesics for a period of time and who are therefore at greater risk of opioid withdrawal syndrome upon sudden discontinuation of opioid use
  25. opioid withdrawal
    signs of symptoms associated with abstinence from or withdrawal of an opioid analgesic when the body has become physically dependent on the substance
  26. pain
    unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage
  27. pain threshold
    level of a stimulus that results in the sensation of pain
  28. referred pain
    pain occurring in an area away from the organ of origin
  29. somatic pain
    pain that originates from skeletal muscles, ligaments, or joints
  30. special pain situations
    general term for pain control situations that are complex and whose treatment typically involves multiple medications, various health care personnel, and nonpharmacologic therapeutic modalities
  31. superficial pain
    pain that originates from the skin or mucous membranes
  32. synergistic effects
    drug interactions in which the effect of a combo of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone
  33. tolerance
    the general term for a state of adaption in which repetitive exposure to a given drug, over time, induces changes in drugs receptor that reduce one or more of the drug's effects
  34. vascular pain
    pain that results from a pathology of the vascular or perivascular tissues
  35. visceral pain
    pain that originates from organs or smooth muscles
  36. world health organizations
    an international body of health care professionals, including clinicians and epidemiologists among many others, that studies and responds to health needs and trends worldwide
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Chapter 11
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