Chapter 13

  1. barbiturates
    • a class of drugs that are chemical derivatives of barbituric acid
    • they induce sedation and sleep
  2. benzodiazepines
    a chemical category of drugs most frequently prescribed as sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic drugs
  3. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the brain
  4. hypnotics
    drugs that, when given at low to moderate dosages, calm or sooth the CNS without inducing sleep but when given at high dosages do cause sleep
  5. Non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep
    • largest portion of the sleep cycle
    • characteristically has four stages and precedes REM sleep. Most of a normal sleep cycle consists of non-REM sleep
  6. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
    • one of the stages of the sleep cycles
    • charactersitcs: rapid movement of the eyes, viivd dreams, and irregular breathing
  7. REM interference
    drug-induced reduction of REM sleep time
  8. REM rebound
    excessive REM sleep following discontinuation of a sleep-altering drug
  9. sedatives
    drugs that have an inhibitory effect on the CNS to the degree that they reduce nervousness, excitability, and irritability without causing sleep
  10. sedatives-hypnotics
    drugs that can act in the body either as sedatives or as hypnotics
  11. sleep
    transient, reversible, and periodic state of rest in which there is a decrease in physical activity and consciousness
  12. sleep architecture
    structure of the various elements involved in the sleep cycle, including normal and abnormal patterns of sleep
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Chapter 13
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