Capsule forms which there are almost 14 serogroups
Respiratory illness develops
How are most meningococcal infections treated?
Most resolve themselves as little more than a resp infection
What makes Haemophilus meningitis different fr meningococcal meningitis?
There is a vaccine for Haemophilus (DTap)
Most N. meningitis cases are in 2-18y/o where as Haemophilus is between 2mos and 5yrs
What are some facts about meningococcal meningitis?
Encapsulated, aerobic, Gram-neg, diplococcus
Serogroup B causes most disease & infant mortality
Trans thru lg resp droplets
Attaches to nasopharyngeal mucosa w/pili
Prevalent in ppl in close proximity
Meningococcal meningitis sometimes leads to formation of lesions in adrenal glands with accompanying hormone imbalances in a condition called ___-___ syndrome.
TB begins with inhalation of ___ establishing ___ and exhibiting ___, ___, ___.
Mycobacterium tuberculosisA primary infection
+ tuberculin reaction
Of those with a primary TB infection, 10% will progress to ___ TB & 90% will progress to a ___ TB infection.
Those with a latent TB infection will exhibit what S&S and 90% of those will have no TB disease rendering them ___ ___.
10% of those w/a latent TB infection will progress to ___ ___ TB exhibiting what S&S?
+ Tuberculin reaction
10% of those w/a primary TB infection will progress to ___ ___ TB disease w/the S&S of what?
+ Tuberculin reaction
If left untreated 50% of those with primary active TB disease ___ within ___ yrs.
What happens to those w/primary or secondary TB disease who are treated after many years?
Most are cured
The term pneumonia refers to a microbial disease of the ___ and ___ and is characterized by what?
Bronchial tubes and lungs
Inflammation or build up of fluid in alveoli
Pneumococcal pneumonia is characterized by what 4 S&S?
Sharp, chest pain
Rust colored sputum
"Typical" pneumonias are characterized by what S&S?
Greenish or yellow sputum
"Atypical" pneumonia is characterized by what S&S?
Dry hacking cough
Pneumococcal pneumonia is caused by ___ ___.
Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Klebsiella pneumoniae are all causes of ___ ___.
"Atypical" pneumonia is caused by what 2 bacteria?
Mycoplasma pneumoniaeLegionella pneumophila
What distinguishes "atypical" pneumonia transmission fr "typical" and pneumococcal pneumonia?
They are all spread via resp droplets however "atypical" pneumonia can also be spread via water sys, whirlpool spas or AC sys.
Describe how Legionnaires disease is spread.
The bacillus exists where water collects and becomes airborne in wind gusts and breezes
Several factors that could determine the etiology of a disease include. . . .
Areas of the body effected
Extent of infection (local or systemic)
Ways that food and water can be contaminated include. . .
During production, preparation, packaging or distribution
Healthy animal microbiota
Exposure to bacteria
Fruit/veggies irrigated/washed w/contam water
Accident in public pool
Improperly treated sewage
What are the S&S of botulism?
Failure of diaphragm & rib muscles
Botulism is a preformed ____ which cause a variety of S&S related to the CNS. Name a few examples.
Failure of rib/diaphragm muscles
Cranial nerve effects in general
Name several diseases other than food borne botulism that are related to Clostridium bitulinum.
Infant botulism (most common in America)
What disease is known as floppy baby syndrome and why is it called that?
Infant botulism b/c the toxin produces lethargy and poor muscle tone
Why are antibiotics ineffective against most strains of botulism?
B/c it is an intoxication rather than an infection
Describe the organism that causes Staphylococcal food poisoning.
Staphylococcal aureus a facultative anaerobe, Gram pos sphere.
Found in protein rich, dairy, cream filled pastries, eggs, ham
Grown on Mannitol Salt agar
What is the temp range for Staphylococcus aureus?
8-45⁰C making in heat tolerant in addition to salt tolerant
Name some characteristics of Clostridial food poisoning.
Protein rich foods
Endospores survive cooking process
What are S&S of clostridial food poisoning?
Several parts of the body that can be affected by typhoid fever include. . . .
Integumentary sys (hemorrhage)
Eventually becomes systemic
How is Typhoid Fever diagnosed?
by any blood, bone marrow or stool cultures and with the Widal test
What various foods can transmit salmonellosis?
Unpasteurized milk & poultry
Commonly chickens & turkeys
How do foods become contaminated w/salmonellosis?
When the normal bacterial species of the gut are absent
What are the S&S of salmonellosis?
Compare diarrhea to dysentery.
Diarrhea is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day where as dysentery is an inflammatory disorder of the colon resulting in severe diarrhea w/blood & mucus in feces w/fever, abd pain caused by infection
Compare shigellosis to salmonellosis.
Salmonellosis involves fever, V/D, abd cramps where as shigellosis is all those plus the S&S of dysentery
Describe bacterial organism that causes cholera.
Vibrio cholerae is a motile, aerobic, Gram neg curved rod that releases cholera toxin causing unrelenting loss of fluid & electrolytes (rice water stools)
What is the course of tx for Cholera?
Electrolyte & glucose relacement
Summarize infection caused by Campylobactor jejuni.
Caused by warm blooded animals such as chickens, turkeys, dairy cattle, unpasteurized dairy products
Cells colonize in sm or lg intestine
S&S Diarrhea, fever
May lead to Guillain-Barre syndrome
What are different infections that can be caused by Brucella species?
Causes infections in lg ruminent animals such as cattle, swine, goats & sheep and dogs
Describe Yersinia infections.
Caused by foods in contact w/infected domestic animals, raw or undercooked pork, contaminated water or milk