1. What are the four classes in the phylum protozoa?
    • Ciliates
    • Flagellates
    • Amebas
    • Sporozoans
  2. Which class in the protozoan phylum does the Coccidia species belong to?
  3. Which class in the protozoan phylum does Toxoplasma belong to?
  4. Which class in the protozoan phylum does Giardia belong to?
  5. Which class in the protozoan phylum does Sarcoocystis neurona belong to?
  6.  What are the two methods of protozoan reproduction?
    • fusion- sexual
    • fission- asexual; dividing
  7. How is a trophozoite different than an oocyst or a cyst?
    • trophozoite: capable of feeding and movement
    • oocyst: ova form, usually passed in feces, resistant.
  8. What animals harbor Eimeria type coccidia?
    Ruminants, rabbits, birds, poultry
  9. What animals harbor Isospora type coccidia?
    Dogs, cats, pigs, primates
  10. How long does it take for an oocyst to sporulate?
    1 day- several days
  11. How does coccidia do harm to the host?
    Damages small intestine. Cause bloody and muciod diarrhea.
  12. As few as _______ oocysts can cause death in the host in coccidia.
  13. Life cycle of coccidia:
    • oocysts passed in feces
    • oral ingestion
    • enter GI tract
    • trophozoite stage invade columnar epithelial cells in small intestine
    • undergo fission
    • transform into gametes
    • undergo fusion
    • form oocysts, pass in feces
  14. What does "self limiting" refer to in coccidia?
    Animal rids itself of infection when all gametes form and make oocysts and are shed from the body.
  15. What is the TX for Coccidia?
    • Sulfadimethoxine: Albon oral susp. Daily up to 21 days, most active against sexual stages.
    • Amprolium: Corid oral susp. Daily 7-12 days, effective on both stages.
    • Ponazuril: Marquis, oral paste. Single dose, repeat 10-14 days, effective on both stages.
  16. What is the causitive agent of toxoplasmosis?
    Toxoplasma gondii
  17. What is the most common way of ingestion of sporulated oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii?
  18. Life Cycle of Toxoplasma gondii
    • Oral ingestion of sporulated oocyst
    • infection in small intestine
    • oocyst production: 20 days
    • shed unsporulated oocysts for 2-3 weeks
    • spoulate in 1-5 days
  19. True/ False: Clinical signs in cats with toxoplasmosis are typically minimal to none.
  20. List ways humans can obtain toxoplasmosis.
    • ingestion of undercooked meat
    • ingestion of infected oocysts in soil (gardening, not washing veggies)
    • ingestion of infective oocysts in cat feces (litterbox)
    • blood transfusions, organ transplants
    • raw goat milk
  21. What are the clinical signs of toxoplasmosis in the human fetus?
    • Spontaneous abortion
    • stillbirth
    • premature birth
    • can develop issues later (blindness, epilepsy, mental retardation)
  22. An increase in Toxoplasma gondii antibodies 2-3 weeks apart may indicate what in cats?
    An active infection with Toxoplasmosis.
  23. TX for Toxoplasmosis
    • Sulfadiazine
    • Pyrimethamine (inhibit activity until AB levels build up)
    • Doxycycline
  24. List ways to prevent Toxoplasmosis infection in humans:
    • wash hands after handling meat
    • thouroughly cook meat
    • change litter box daily
    • dont handle litter; wear gloves
    • wear gloves while gardening
    • thouroughly wash veggies
    • cover sandboxes
  25. What equine disease is associated with Sarcocystis neurona?
    EPM (Equine Protozoal Myoencephalitis)
  26. What is the definative host for Sarcocystis neurona?
  27. What three factors influence progression of EPM?
    • number of organisms ingested
    • period of infection before tx
    • point on CNS localized and damaged
  28. True/ False: The horse is a paratenic host of Sarcocystis neurona?
  29. What are some ways to prevent EPM?
    • cover anything that could attract opossums
    • clean water supply
    • processed grain to kill oocytes
    • max health through proper managment
    • vaccine
  30. What lab tests can be used to diagnose EPM?
    • Western Blot: detects AB, uses CSF or serum, indicates exposure
    • PCR (polymerase chain rxn): detects antigen, CSF/serum, indicates presence BETTER
  31. TX for EPM
    • SMZ-TMP + Daraprim: daily for 6 months
    • Ponazuril: daily for 28 days
    • TX does not repair CNS damage
  32. What percentage of dogs and cats harbor Giardia?
    • 8% dogs
    • 4%cats
  33. Where does Giardia reside in the host?
    Small intestine
  34. What are the clincal signs of a Giardia infection?
    • asymptomatic
    • cyclic, explosive diarrhea w/ mucus and blood, malodorus
    • steatorrhea (fat in feces)
    • dehydration
  35. How is Giardia diagnosed?
    • clincial signs
    • direct fecal exam: observe motility, stain to ID
    • ZnSO4 centrifuged float
    • antigen test- in house
  36. How is Giardia treated?
    • Metronidazole (flagyl)
    • Oral Tab
    • not used in pregnant animals
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