Urine is formed by three processes, what are they?
This process of urine formation involves movement of substances from the glomerules into Bowman's Capsule
This process of urine formation involves movement of substances from renal tubules back into the blood.
Where does reabsorption mostly occur?
Proximal convoluted tubule
This process of urine formation involves movement of substance from blood back into the renal tubules.
When secretion takes place, the reminants will end up in the final urine product. True or False?
What is the main organ of the urinary system?
What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?
Review movement of blood through the kidney and products of the kidney
How many nephrons per kidney?
More than 1 million
How many major cortexes in each kidney?
how many minor cortex in each kidney?
Fx of Renin
Regulate blood pressure
Fx of Erythropoetin
Stimulates the production of red blood cells
Fx of Vitamin D
Assists in proper absorption of calcium
Name 5 functions of the kidney
Remove metabolic waste material from the blood
Activate vitamin D
Network of Cappilaries surrounded by Bowman's Capsule
Condition in which urine is voided involuntarily
Urine is produced but not voided
Inflammation of urinary bladder
Substance that causes increased production of urine
Inflammation of the kidney
Presence of glucose in the urine
Aritificial filtering of the blood
How does dialysis filter the blood artificially?
Use of semi permeable membrane
Production of excessive amounts of urine
Absence of urine formation
A ______ _______ _______ is associated with all parts of the kidney.
Rich cappillary network
Fluid initially formed by filtration
Where does filtrate pass thru?
General term for the tubules of the nephron
These venules run across tops of the renal pyramids and seperates the cortex from the medulla
Arcuate arteries and veins
Found in the cortex creating a meshwork
Found in the medulla, longer in length than peritubular capillaries and have a verticle appearnce
This specific nephron extends into the cortex and sometimes only slightly into the medulla
This specific nephron extends deeply into the renal medulla
This pressure is exerted by blood pressure within the glomerulus
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
This pressure is exerted by solute levels of the Bowman's Capsule. Opposes filtration.
Glomerular Plasma Osmotic Pressure
These two pressures within the Renal Corpuscle opposes filtration.
Glomerular Plasma Osmotic Prssure
Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure
This pressure is exerted in the filtrate of the Bowman's Capsule
Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure
What type of nephron is necessary for a hypertonic urine sample?
What percent of nephrons are the juxtamedullary?
What percent of nephrons are the Cortical Nephrons?
As a general rule of thumb, when does filtration occur?
When filtration pressure is positive.
The higher the level of filtration pressure, the higher the ______ _______.
What are the "non filterable" components of blood?
Large proteins such as hormones, enzymes, and antibodies, and formed elements of the blood.
Name 2 waste products found in the filtrate?
Urea and Creatinine
What type of substances can be found in the filtrate?
Water, Glucose, Amino Acids, Waste Prodicts, and various ions.
What ions can be found in the filtrate
Sodium, Chlorine, Potassium, Calcium
What causes filtration?
Identify the formula that calculates filtration pressure.
Filtration Pressure=GHP - (GPOP + CHP)
Identify three reasons why filtration pressure can vary.
Change in diameters in the arterioles
Change in the GPOP
Change in the CHP
Where does the Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure occur?
In regards to the diameter of the arterioles, how do they react when filtration is being increased?
Afferent arterioles increase in diameter
Efferent arterioles decrease in diameter
How many liters of filtrate is produced by BOTH kidneys in a 24 hour period?
Outer layer of the Kidney
Inner layer of the Kidney
Conical masses of tissue seen within the renal medulla
The tips of the renal pyramid
Extensions of the renal cortex into the renal medulla
Measure of a solute concentration
Equal solute and solvent concentration when in regards to tonicity
Grater solute concentration when in regards to tonicity
Greater solvent concentration when in regards to tonicity.
Another kind of reabsorption is associated with the loops of henle of the juxamedullary nephron, what is this unique process called?
In a Counter-Current Mechanism, why can't water follow sodium out of the membrane of the ascending loop of henle?
The membrane is too thick
What does the tonicity start out as in tthe juxamedullary nephron when a Counter-Current Mechanism is active?
What does the tonicity change to as filtrate passes through the descending loop of henle when a Counter-Current Mechanism is active? What happens?
Hypertonic, water moves out of the descending loop via osmosis.
In a juxtamedullary nephron, a hypertonic filtrate moves through the descending loop of henle when a Counter-Current Mechanism is active. What tonicity does it achieve when it enters the ascending loop of henle? What happens?
Hypotonic, Chloride and Sodium ions move out via active transport.
In a juxtamedullary nephron, when a Counter-Current Mechanism is active, what happens to the fluid's tonicity when it reaches the distal convoluted tubules? What happens here?
The filtrate becomes hypertonic and water moves out of the tubules via osmosis
What is the function of the couter-current mechanism in a juxtamedullary nephron?
Keep the medullary interstitial fluid hypertonic in order to produce a hypertonic urine.
During the Counter-Current Mechanism in a juxtamedullary nephron, what happens in the collecting duct?
Water moves out of the collecting duct by means of osmosis producing a hypertonic urine.
A capillary network within the kidney.
Each glomerulus is surrounded by what?
The glomerulus together with its Bowman's capsule is reffered to as what?
What makes up the two layers of Bowman's capsule?
Simple Squamous Epithelial Cells
True or False. The cappillaries of the glomeruli are much more permeable than the cappillaries of other parts of the body.
Why are the cappillaries of the glomeruli more permeable than other parts of the body?
What are the numerous tiny openings in the glomerular cappillary walls?
Formed by the combination of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells?
The distal convoluted tubule of the nephron comes into contact with the afferent arteriole. Where this contact occurs, the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule are narrowed and packed together. What do these cells make up?
The large smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole that comes into contact with the macula densa.
What do the Juxtaglomerular cells secrete?
The expansion of the ureter as it opens into the kidney.
Connects kidney to the urinary bladder.
Leads from theurinary bladder through the external genitalia.
Identify the three parts of a male urethra.
Name a powerful vasoconstrictor.
how does Angiotensin II increase filtration rate?
It causes the smooth muscle cells of the efferent arterole to constrict. In turn, less blood leaves the glomerulus and the glomerular hydrostatic pressure increases. This increases filtration rate.
Assuming a decreased filtration rate, what happens to the amount of chloride ions reaching the distal convoluted tubule?
In regards to regulating the filtration rate, what causes an increase flow of blood into the glomerulus?
Macula Densa signalling the smooth muscles of the afferent arteriole to relax.
In regards to regulating the filtration rate, The increase flow of blood into the glomerus from the relaxation of the afferent arteriole muscles causes what?
Increased GHP and increase filtration rate.
In regards to regulating the filtration rate, what stimulates the juxtaglomerular cells to secrete renin?
The macula densa.
In regards to regulating the filtration rate, when renin is released, what rxns occur?
Renin causes Angiotensinogen to turn into Angiotensin I, then Angiotensin I is coverted to Angiotensin II
What two hormones effect systemic blood pressure?
Renin and Aldosterone
Where is aldosterone released from?
What does aldosterone do?
Increases the reabsorption of sodium into the peritubular capillaries and causes additional secretion of potassium into the renal tubules
Assuming an initial codition of low BP and low sodium in the blood, how does Renin increase the systemic blood pressure?
1. Juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin
2. Angiotensinogen --> Angiotensin I --> Angiotensin II
3. Angiotensin II stimulates aldosterone relaese
4. Increased NA blood levels by aldosterone, Increased water blood volume, Increase Blood Volume, Increase BP
Approximately what percent of all reabsorption occurs in the PCT?
Microscopic inspection of the PCT revals the epithelial cells have numerous _______ projecting from their surfaces. This gives the PCT a "brush border".
In general what substances are reabsorbed in the kidney?
Water, glucose, Sodium ions, Chloride ions, amino acids, albumin
What type of process is involved when sodium is reabsorbed in the kidney?
What type of process is involved when negative ions is reabsorbed in the kidney?
What type of process is involved when water is reabsorbed in the kidney?
What type of process is involved when Glucose is reabsorbed in the kidney?
What type of process is involved when Amino Acid is reabsorbed in the kidney?
What type of process is involved when albumin is reabsorbed in the kidney?
What does hydrogen cause when secreted?
Urine to be acidic
Name five substances secreted in urine formation?
Name 2 hormones that have roles in urine formation.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
What is ADH relaeased by?
Post pituitary Gland
What is aldosterone released by?
This hormone causes an increased permeability of the DCT and collecting ducts to water.
What is the responsibility of ADH in urine formation?
Reabsorption of water. "Keeps you hydrated"
This hormone causes a greater reabsorption of sodium ions from the DCT.
What is the function of ADH and Aldosterone together?
Decrease urine volume
Urine is approximately what percent water?
Name four nitrogenous wastes found in the urine?
Urine also contains trace amounts of amino acids and various electrolytes such as what?
The normal color of urine is due to pigments called what?
What are urochromes?
End products of hemoglobin breakdown
Name three things abnormally found in urine.
Each kidney is connected to the urinary bladder by what?
This process moves urine through the ureter and into the urinary bladder.
Two functions of the urinary bladder
Moves Urine into Urethra
A triangular area within the bladder.
The superior border to the trigone opens to the what?
The inferior border of the trigone opens to the what?
The empty bladder contains numerous folds of tissue called what?
What is the fx of the rugae in a urinary bladder?
Incrases the area of the bladder and allows it to stretch
The smooth muscle of the urinary bladder is the what?
Contractions of the detrusor muscle does what?
Move urine out of the urinary bladder and into the urethra
The _____ is the tube that connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
The opening to the outside of the body.
The process by which urine leaves the urinary baldder and passes through the urethra and finally the urethral oriface.
Name the two sphincter muscles involved with micturition.
Internal and External Urethral Sphincters
Is the internal urethral sphincter voluntary or involuntary?
Is the external urethral sphincter voluntary or involuntary?
The need to release urine may be noticed when the urine in the bladder is at least ____mL?
When the amount in the bladder approches ____ mL, the emptying reflex begins.
Identify four steps of the emptying reflex.
Parasympathetic impulses cause detrusor muscle contraction (Urgency)
Internal Urethral Sphincter relaxes
Urine partially enters urethra (Urgency greatens)
External urethral sphincter remains closed
Name one cause of urinary retention in males.
The benign enlargement of the prostate gland.
Sperm cell formation.
Where does spermatogenesis occur in the body?
Seminiferous tubules of testes
23 23 23 23
(Sperm are produced)
Egg cell formation.
Where does oogenesis occur in the body?
23 23 23 23
Small "23" has polar body
This chromosome is not visible with a microscope.
Specific sequence of DNA that codes for specific proteins.
Chromosomes that have the same structures NOT the same gene.
Homologous pairs of chromomes
Where is a centromere located?
In center of a double stranded chromosome.
Process of cell division which leads to the production of egg and sperm cells.
In meiosis, what are events called during the first divison? The second?
The pairing of homologous chromosomes.
During synapsis chromosomes become tightly intertwined with eachother, what is it called when chromatids break in one or more places and change parts with eachother exchanging genetic information?
What happens during interphase?
Replication of the chromosomal material. Chromatins are present.
Describe the chromatin in Interphase I.
46 single stranded chromatin.
Describe the chromatin in Interphase II.
23 double stranded chromatin in each daughter cell.
What happens during prophase?
Chromosomes condense and become visible, nucleoli and nuclear membrane disappears, spindle fibers form.
Describe the chromosomes in Prophase I.
46 double stranded chromosomes
Describe the chromosomes in Prophase II.
23 double stranded chromosomes in each daughter cell.
What happens during metaphase?
The synaptic pairs of homologous chromosomes pair line up in the center of the cell. Each centromere becomes associated with a spindle fiber.
Describe the chromosomes in Metaphase I.
46 Double stranded chromosomes
Describe the chromosomes in Metaphase II.
23 Double stranded chromosomes in each daughter cell
What happens during anaphase I?
The homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of the cell.
What happens during anaphase II?
The centromeres separate and the chromosomes (chromatids) move to opposite poles of the cell.
Describe the chromosomes in Anaphase I.
46 Double strands
Describe the chromosomes in Anaphase II.
46 single strands in each daugher cell.
What happens during Telophase I?
The parent cell divides into two daughter cells with each daughter cell recieveing only one member of a homologous pair of chromosomes. Chromosomes assume their chromatin form, nucleoli and nuclear membranes reappear and the spindle fibers disappear.
What happens during Telophase II?
Each cell divides into two daughter cells, the nucleoli and nuclear membranes reappear and the spindle fibers disappear. Each new daughter cell contains 23 single stranded chromosomes.
Describe the chromosomes in Telophase I.
23 double strands in each daughter cell.
Describe the chromosomes in Telophase I.
23 single strands in each daughter cell.
What is the indentation called between daughter cells during telophase?
The essential organ of the human reproductive system
What process is the ovary associated with?
What hormones are produced by the ovary?
Estrogen and Progesterone
this ligament anchors the ovary to the uterus.
This ligament connects the ovary and uterus to the pelvic wall.
At puberty, how many immature egg cells are in the ovary? How many become mature?
The release of a mature egg cell into the body.
Typically how many eggs are released by ovulation per month?
Tube that connects the ovary and uterus.
The largest area of the fallopian tube at the base of the ovary.
What structures can be found on the infundibulum?
What are fimbrae?
Finger like structures off of the infundibulum. "Catches" an ovulated egg.
The union of a sperm cell with an egg cell results in what? What is this process called?
Where does fertilization occur?
Distal 13 of fallopian tube
The embedding of fertilized egg cells into the endometrium of the uterus.
this occurs when implantation occurs outside the uterus. Typically in the fallopian tube.
Removal of ovary(s)
An oopherectomy may cause early onset _____.
Removal of fallopian tube(s)
General term for the external female genitalia.
Elevation of adipose tissue over the symphysis pubis.
Large lip of the vagina, Outter fold of tissue, has thick pubic hair.
Small lip of the vagina, forms the borders of the vestibule, merges anterior to unite with the clitoris.
Which "lip" of the vagina contains erectile tissue?
Space between the lips of the labia minora
Erectile tissue that is highly sensitive and with stimulation causes the female orgasm.
Female foreskin covering part of the clitoris
Opening to the Urethra.
Opening to the vagina.
Exocrine gland in female reproductive system, produces lubricant at the vaginal oriface for vaginal intercourse.
Greater vestibular gland
Exocrine gland, secretes mucous, opens at the urethral oriface.
What is the fx of the paraurethral gland?
Protects from pathogens entering urethra
Upper dome shaped portion of the uterus above the oviducts.
Main central portion of the uterus.
Inferior one-third of the uterus.
What seperates the uterine cavity from the cervical canal?
What seperates the cervical canal from the vagina?
Recesses between the vaginal wall and the cervix. Projection of the cervix into the vagina.
Outter serous layer of the female reproductive system
Thickest layer of the female reproductive system made of smooth muscle.
Membrane with in the uterus. "Inner epithelial lining"
Removal of the uterus.
A sheet of connecting tissue in the female reproductive system.
A cord of connecting tissue in the female reproductive system.
What two ligaments help anchor the uterus to the body wall and hold the uterus in place?
Identify the functions of Estrogen and Progesterone.
Stimulates the development of the reproductive structures such as the vagina, uterus, ovary, oiducts, and other external structures. Promotes the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics as well such as, breasts, ducts, mamary glands, large deposits of adipose tissues in the breast thighs and buttocks.
Name an additional fx of Progesterone that is not a fx of Estrogen.
Promotes changes in the uterus during the menstrual cycle
Fx of FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
Stimulates follicles, produced in the anterior pituitary gland.
Fx of LH (Luetinizing Hormone)
Ovulation, Produced by anterior pituitary gland
What is a follicle?
Ovum and associated cells, promotes production of follicular cells.
First menstrual period
What is cramping caused by and its function?
prostaglandins that are released by uterine glands to assist shedding
Day 1-5 of the Menstrual cycle can be referred to as what?
What causes the bleeding during a menstrual period?
The underlying capillaries breaking when the endometrial lining sheds.
What happens during the "Menstrual Period" phase of the menstrual cycle?
The endometrium sheds causing the underlying cappillaries to break, corpus luteum dies, cramping occurs
In the "Menstrual Period" phase, what happens when the corpus luteum dies?
Decrease levels of estrogen and progesterone
If the number of days in a cycle changes, this is the only phase effected.
What days are the Post menstrual phase on in a 28 day cycle?
What happens during the postmenstrual phase?
FSH is released stimulating follicle evelopent which produces hormones. Mainly estrogen and some progesteronewhich in turn stimulate growth of the endometrium
What day does ovulation occur on?
What is ovulation caused by?
A Leutenizing Hormone surge which also promotes the development of the corpus luteum
What froms the corpus luteum?
Forms from the ruptured follicle in ovulation
What type of gland is the corpus luteum?
What hormones does the corpus luteum secrete and their fx?
Progesterone & Estrogen: Continue endometrial growth and also stimulate uterine glands to secrete nutrients such as glucose.
Inhibin: Inhibits release of FSH
What hormone is present in a zygote?
HCG (Human Choronic Gonadotropin)
What happens to the corpus luteum in the final stage of menstruation if your are NOT pregnant?
Corpus Luteum degenerates
What happens to the corpus luteum in the final stage of menstruation if your are pregnant?
Corpus Luteum is maintained
What is the fx of HCG?
Maintanins a functional corpus luteum
What does a home pregnancy detect?
HCG in the urine
Connective tissue reminant in the corpus luteum?
Name the fx of the vagina?
Receptacle of sexual intercourse
Exit for menstrual flow
What is the main organ of the male reproductive system?
Name two fx of the testes?
Sperm cell production
What chromosome is present for a male baby?
In the male there is the scrotum, what is the equivalent in the female?
In the male there is the testicle, what is the equivalent in the female?
In the male there is the penis, what is the equivalent in the female?
In the male there is the prostate, what is the equivalent in the female?
In the male there is the Coulpers Gland, what is the equivalent in the female?
Review the structures of a sperm cell, diagram and label
How much is a typical male ejaculate?
2-6 mL of semen
what makes up semen?
Accessory Organ Secretions + Sperm
On average, how many sperm cells per mL of ejaculate?
On average, how many total sperm cells in a ejaculate?
What is a vasectomy?
Surgical incision of the vas deferans
Post vasectomy: What percent of fluid is still present for ejaculation?
Normal body temp is 98.6, what is scrotal temperature? Why is it lower than body temp?
This muscle regulates the position of the testicle.
Testicle(s) do not descend into scrotum
Fx of Epididymus
Secrete glycogen and this nourishes sperm cells promoting maturation
Where does the spermatic cord structures enter the body cavity?
What is the shaft of the penis?
Main central portion of the penis
What is the erectile tissue in the male?
Corpora cavernosum, within the penis
Where does the ureter pass through in the penis??
What is the glans penis?
Head of the penis, highly sensory
What is a circumcision?
Removal of the foreskin/prepuce
Name three reasons for circumcison?
During pregnancy, what is present while the placenta is forming? For how long? Where is it located?
After the placenta forms, how long is it present? Where is it located? What is it's nickname?
Final 7 months
When an inner cell mass splits what is resulted during pregnancy?
Twins, identical twins of same sex
During pregnancy, what occurs when 2 egg cells are fertilized?
Twins, fraternal twins
Name four reasons there are so many sperm in a male ejaculate?
Wrong fallopian tube
Pouch of skin where testes are held?
Dense connective tissue around testicles.
Extensions of the tunica albuginea divide each testicle into a series of compartments called what?
Tightly coiled tubules located within the lobules. Spermatogenesis occurs here.
What two structures are located within the seminiferous tubules.
Spermatogonia and the Sertoli cells
Immature cells which may become sperm cells.
The supportive cells that help to regulate spermatogenesis and secrete inhibin.
These cells located between the seminiferous tubules. Secrete testosterone.
When the sperm cells leave the seminiferous tubules, they enter what?
After the sperm cells enter the rete testis, they then enter what?
Efferent ducts within the epididymus
What does the epididymus become outside the testes?
Vas deferens within the spermatic cord
Name four structures within the spermatic cord?
Sperm duct (Vas deferens)
What is the ejaculatory duct?
Union of the vas deferens with urethra
Fx of prostate gland?
30% of semen volume. Semen gets its milky white color and becomes basic
Fx of Cowpers gland?
5% of semen volume. Lubricating gland. "pre-ejaculant"
What is the seminal vesicle?
60% of semen volume. Rich in fructose- energu secretes prostoglandins.
What is the fx of prostoglandins in the seminal vesicles?
Stimulate contractions of female reproductive tract including the fallopian tube aiding in sperm movement. Neutralizes acidic vagina and the male urethra helping sperm survive
The enlargement and stiffening of the penis.
What happens for an erection to occur?
Parasymphathetic nerve impulses to the arteries leading into the penis become dilated increasing bp within the penis. This inhibits venous blood flow away from the penis
The climax of sexual stimulation?
What has to occur for a male orgasm?
Emission and Ejaculation
What is emission?
The combination of sperm cells and secretions from the prostate gland and seminal vesicles in the urethra forming semen.
The expulsion of semen thru the penile urethra to the outside of the penis.
In a male, what does the Lutenizing hormone do?
Promote stimulation of the interstitial cells which then secrete testosterone
In a male what does FSH do?
Stimulates the spermatogonia to undergo spermatogenesis.
In a male, what does inhibin do?
A hormone secreted by the supporting cells in the testicles. Regulates the anterior pituitary gland and prevents oversecretion of FSH
Name four effects of testosterone on the male body?
Maturation of sperm cells
Stimulates the decent of testicles
Develops male sercondary sexual characteristics such as body hair, thickening of vocal cords, increase muscular growth along with broad shoulders and a narrower waist
Condition in which there is a developing offspring within the uterus due to fertilization.
Fertilization is complete when?
Nuclear membranes of the sperm cell and egg cell merge
The merging of sperm cell and egg cell leads in the formation of what?
46 ss chromosomes
(23 homologous pairs)
Fertilized egg cells implant itself outside the uterus most commonly in the fallopian tube.
After a zygote is formed, it undergos what?
Mitosis of the zygote typically occurs when?
36 hours of its formation
The period which the division of the zygote occurs into 16 cells?
The solid mass of the 16 cells resulting from the cleavage period?
How many days did does it take for the morula to develop? Where is it developed?
The morula then will become a what?
What is a blastocyst?
A hollow ball of cells that implants itself in the endometrium around day 7 after fertilization.
Around the time of implantation, the blastocyst becomes what?
Inner cell mass?
What is the inner cell mass?
The body of the offspring will develop from this
The inner cell mass signals the beginning of what?
After two months the embryo is now considered what?
What is HCG?
Secreted by zygote shortly after fertilization. Causes corpus luteum to be maintained and it continues to secrete prgesterone and estrogen
What is Placental Pregesterone?
Continues and maintains growth and development of the endometrium stimulates growth and development of alveolar gland within the breast
What is Placental estrogen?
Also continues and maintains growth and development of endometrium. Promotes enlargement of the vagina. Stimulates growth and development of the alveolar ducts
What is Placental Relaxin?
Relaxes symphasis pubis during. Promotes dilation of the cervix during the final week of pregnancy
What is Placental lactogen?
Aids progesterone and estrogen in breast development during pregnancy
What is Oxytocin?
Powerful stimulator of myometrial contractions
Process in which the muscular contractions of the myometrium force the fetus through the birth canal.
The release of the placenta through the birth canal caused by uterine contractions
Mammary glands that produce milk
Connects the alveolar glands with the nipple
This tissue determines the size of the breast.
Suspend the breast in place and maintain its shape.
Pigmented area around the nipple containing sebaceous glands.
What is the fx of the sebaceous glands within the nipple?
Secrete sebum which prevents the drying of nipple during suckling.
Fx of Ovarian Estrogen?
Helps the alveolar ducts branch and grow
What is the fx of ovarian progesterone?
Alveolar glands development and growth
What is the Anterior Pituitary gland Prolactin?
What is the posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin?
Stimulates contraction of myoepithelial glands to stimulate milk ejection out of the breast
What are uterine contractions thought to be stimulated by?