Motor behavior

  1. Outcome goals
    target performance improvementsthat focus on the result of the activity
  2. Performance goals
    focus on improving on a previousperformance (improving percentage of good first serves).
  3. Process goals
    target the quality of movement andskill execution (tucking body during forward roll).
  4. Target skills
    the skills a person wants to be able to perform
  5. Target behaviors
    the actions a person needs to be able to produce to accomplish target skills
  6. Target context
    the environment in which the person will produce the target skill
  7. Transfer of Learning
    gain or loss of a person’s proficiency on one task as a result of previous experience
  8. Generalization
    the transfer of learning that occurs from practice to target context
  9. Near transfer
    the type of learning that transfers from one task to another under very similar tasks or situations
  10. Far transfer
    occurs from one task to another under very different tasks or settings
  11. Not motivated
    half-hearted efforts
  12. Achievement motivation
    the effort a person uses to reach a goal for mastery, for learning, or to surpass others
  13. Stages of Learning
    • Verbal–cognitive stage
    • Motor stage
    • Autonomous stage
  14. Verbal–Cognitive Stage
    • A lot of time talking
    • Alot of time thinking
    • Self-talk
    • Verbal guidance
    • Large gains
    • Rapid gains
  15. Motor Stage
    • Solved cognitive problem
    • Refining skill
    • More effective movement
    • More consistency
    • Strategies
    • Need precise feedback
  16. Autonomous Stage
    • Some never get here
    • Little or no attention
    • Longer motor programs
    • Higher-order cognition
  17. Outcome measures
    performance observations that indicate some aspect of the result as it relates to time, distance, frequency,and accuracy
  18. Process measures
    indicate something about the quality of movement being produced
  19. Indicators to Assess Skills
    Outcome measures and Process measures
  20. Massed practice
    rest between performance bouts is shorter than the amount of time spent practicing
  21. Distributed practice
    amount of rest between practice bouts is longer than the amount of time spent practicing
  22. Blocked Practice
    A practice sequence in whichindividuals rehearse the same skill repeatedly
  23. Varied/Variable Practice
    practice sequence in whichperformers rehearse a number of variations of a given class of skills during asession
  24. Practice Structures
    Blocked Practice and Varied practice
  25. Less rest may be better with _____ skills ;performers need lots of repetition without becoming bored.
  26. For ______ skills that cause fatigue, less rest between performances may retard performance (more distributed and varied practice).
    Continuous skills
  27. For practice bouts that last a short time and are not affected by fatigue, learners should perform many repetitions of the task.
  28. For ____ tasks that are potentially affected by fatigue, practice should be accompanied by sufficient rest periods.
  29. Forms of Practice
    • –Simulator practice
    • –Part practice
    • –Slow-motion practice
    • –Error-detection practice
    • –Mental-rehearsal techniques
  30. Blocked practice
     practice sequence in which a significant amount of time is spent on one task, then the next task
  31. Random practice
    variation in the order of practice; tasks are intermingled or continuously rotated
  32. Which statement is false.

    Blocked Practice can .....

    A. ) produce better performance and learning
  33. True or False.
    Random practice produces more learning than blocked practice does.
  34. Blocked and Random Practice
    (+)Repetitiveness in practice is more essential for highly skilled performance but not as effective during practice.

    Blocked practice may contribute to (+) consistent performance but may give the learner an artificial or (-) false sense of accomplishment
  35. During blocked practice,the learner fails to practice the targetskill,or the context is different than thecontext for the goal performance
  36. What does Specificity of learning suggest?
    suggests that the best practiceschedules are those that bring the learner as closeas possible to the actual performance or target skill
  37. An example of blocked practice is...?
    • Spike, spike spike, spike
    • block, block, block, block
    • Pass, pass, pass, pass
  38. An example of both blocked and random is...?
    • spike, spike, block, block, pass, pass
    • block, block, spike, spike, pass, pass
  39. an example of random practice is...?
    • spike, pass, block, pass, block spike
    • pass, block, spike, block, pass, spike
  40. Invariant
    movements or features arecomponents of a movement that remain the same
  41. Constant practice
    practice—similarto blocked practice; people rehearse one variation of a task during a session(throwing a dart)
  42. Varied practice
    people practice different versions of the same action; rehearsal matches actual performance (throwing a softball)
  43. Random practice
    practice different tasks that require different generalized motor programs (throwing, kicking, catching); no repetition of a single skill on consecutive trials
  44. Blocked practice
    repeat one skill numerous times before switching to the next skill
  45. Varied practice
    practice variations of the same task
  46. Constant practice
    rehearse a single variation of one task
Card Set
Motor behavior