Immune System

  1. innate immunity
    • –Found in all animals
    • –Responds immediately whether the body has been exposed to the pathogen previously or not
    • –Small set of receptors detect a large array of microbes
  2. acquired immunity
    • –Only in vertebrates
    • –Large set of receptors allow specific targeting of pathogens
  3. invertebrate innate immunity
    • Chitin based exoskeleton provides a first line of defense
    • hemocytes
    • Other hemocytes trigger the production of antimicrobial peptides
    • –Peptides disrupt the plasmamembranes of the bacteriaand fungi
  4. hemocytes
    are phagocytic cells that digest foreign bodies
  5. antimicrobal peptides
    • Recognition proteins bind to specific molecules on the cell walls of fungi or bacteria
    • The recognition protein activates the Toll protein on the surface of immune response cells
    • Signal transduction from Toll to the nucleus causes the synthesis of antimicrobial proteins
  6. Vertebrate immunity
    • Like invertebrates, vertebrates have innate defenses including barrier defenses, phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides
    • Additional defenses are unique to vertebrates: the inflammatory response and natural killer cells
  7. what are the 5 barrier defenses vertebrates have?
    • Skin–Blocks many pathogens
    • Mucus–Traps pathogens
    • Saliva
    • Tears
    • Lysozyme–Found in tears, saliva and mucus
    • –Dissolves bacterial walls
  8. what does a WBC do
    A white blood cell engulfs a microbe, then fuses with a lysosome to destroy the microbe
  9. neutrophils
    engulf and destroy microbes
  10. macrophages
    • are part of the lymphatic system and are found throughout the body
    • big eaters
  11. Eosinophils
    discharge destructive enzymes
  12. Dendritic cells
    stimulate development of acquired immunity
  13. mast cells release?
    histamine following an injury which promotes changes in blood vessels; this is part of the inflammatory response
  14. during the inflammatory response, These changes increase local blood supply and allow more what and what proteins to enter tissues
    phagocytes and antimicrobial protiens
  15. pus
    a fluid rich in white blood cells, dead microbes, and cell debris, accumulates at the site of inflammation
  16. Image Upload 2
  17. lymphocytes
    White blood cells called lymphocytes recognize and respond to antigens, foreign molecules
  18. T cells vs B cells
    Lymphocytes that mature in the thymus above the heart are called T cells, and those that mature in bone marrow are called B cells
  19. antigen
    is any foreign molecule to which a lymphocyte responds
  20. B and T cells
    • B cells and T cells have receptor proteins that can bind to foreign molecules
    • Each individual lymphocyte is specialized to recognize a specific type of molecule
    • A single B cell or T cell has about 100,000 identical antigen receptors
  21. B cells give rise to what kind of cells
    plasma cells which secrete proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins
  22. epitope
    All antigen receptors on a single lymphocyte recognize the same epitope, or antigenic determinant, on an antigen
  23. what are the 2 branches of acquired immunity
    the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated immune response
  24. Humoral immune response
    involves activation and clonal selection of B cells, resulting in production of secreted antibodies
  25. cell-mediated immune response
    involves activation and clonal selection of cytotoxic T cells•Helper T cells aid both responses
  26. neutralization
    occurs when a pathogen can no longer infect a host because it is bound to an antibody
  27. oposonization
    • occurs when antibodies bound to antigens increase phagocytosis
    • Antibodies together with proteins of the complement system generate a membrane attack complex and cell lysis
  28. active immunity
    • develops naturally in response to an infection
    • It can also develop following immunization, also called vaccination
    • In immunization, a nonpathogenic form of a microbe or part of a microbe elicits an immune response to an immunological memory
  29. passive immunity
    • provides immediate, short-term protection
    • It is conferred naturally when IgG crosses the placenta from mother to fetus or when IgA passes from mother to infant in breast milk
    • It can be conferred artificially by injecting antibodies into a non-immune person
  30. what on a RBC determines a persons blood type?
    • antigens on red blood cells determine whether a person has blood type A (A antigen), B (B antigen), AB (both A and B antigens), or O (neither antigen)
    • Antibodies to nonself blood types exist in the body
    • Transfusion with incompatible blood leads to destruction of the transfused cells
    • Recipient-donor combinations can be fatal or safe
Card Set
Immune System
Test 3