1. I.                   European States and the World: The Colonial Empires
    • a.      WWI and Great Depression affected colonies
    • b.      Despite war, Allied nations managed to keep colonial empires intact
    •                                                               i.      Great Britain and France added to empires by dividing up Germany’s colonial possessions and taking control of Middle East through mandates
  2. Europe's political and social foundatiosn
    • a.      Europe’s political and social foundations and its self-confidence were undermined
    •                                                               i.      Asia and Africa: unrest against European domination à worker activism, protests, national fervor
  3. The Middle East
    •                                                               i.      period between two wars= transition
    •                                                             ii.      fall of Ottomans and Persionsà new modernizing regimes in Turke and Iran
    •                                                           iii.      independent government established in Saudi Arabia
    •                                                           iv.      Iraq ahd independence form Britain
  4. Brits and French
    •                                                               i.      Brits and French maintained other mandates
    • 1.      had plans to divide Ottoman territories in Middle Eeast, but General Mustafa Kemal led Turkish forces to create new republic of Turkey in 1923
  5. Kemal wanted to?
    • a.      he wanted to modernize Turkey along Western lines
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      trappings of a democratic system were put in place, although the new president didn’t tolerate opposition
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      in addition ot introducing a state-run industrial system, Kemal westernized Turkish culture
    • 1.      the Turkish language was written using the Latin alphabet
  6. Popular education
    • 1.      Popular education was introduced, and old aristocratic titles were abolished
    • a.      All Turkish citizens were forced to adopt family names in the European style
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Kemal= Ataturk; he made Turkey a secular republic and broke the power of the Islamic religion
    • 1.      new laws gave women equal rights with men in all aspects of marriage and inheritance
  7. 1934
    • 1.      1934: women received the right to vote
    • a.      education and professions opened to both sexes
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Turkish republic was product of Ataturk’s determined efforts to use nationalism and Western ways to create modern Turkish nation
  8. India
    •                                                               i.      Indian people began to refer to Gandhi as India’s Great Soul, or Mahatma
    • 1.      set up movement based on nonviolent resistance whose aim was to force British to improve the poor and grant independence to India
    • a.      when Brits tried to suppress call for independence, Ghandi called on followers to follow a peaceful policy of civil disobedience by refusing to obey British regulations
  9. Gandhi
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Gandhi began to manufacture his own clothes and dressed in a simple dhoti, or loincloth made of coarse homespun cotton
    • 1.      adopted the spinning wheel as symbol of India’s resistanc eot imports of British textiles
  10. British resisted
    •                                                               i.      Although British resisted Gandhi’s movement, in 1935, they granted India internal self-government to be implemented through a gradual program
    • 1.      legislative councils at local level were enlarged and responsible for education, local affairs, and public health
    • 2.      Indian participation in govenrmnet increased
    •                                                             ii.      Brits still controlled law and order, land revenue, and famine
  11. Africa
    •                                                               i.      Blacks who fought wanted independence
    • 1.      good enough to fight= good enough to be free
    •                                                             ii.      peace settlement after WWI turned out to be great disappointment
    • 1.      germany stripped of African colonies, but they were awarded to Brits and French to administer as mandates fo rhte League of Nations
  12. After WWI
    •                                                               i.      After WWI, Africans became more active politically
    • 1.      ones who fought learned Western ideas about freedom and nationalism
    • a.      in Africa, missionaries taught Africans about liberty and equality
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      as more Africans became aware of the enormous gulf between Western ideal sna dpractices, they wanted reform
  13. Protest
    •                                                               i.      Protest took different forms
    • 1.      trade unions to gain benefits for workers
    • 2.      violent protest
    • a.      women protested high taxesà riotà women called for white men to leave
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Brits ended the riot, killing fifty women in the process
  14. Colonial response
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      although colonial powers responded to protest movements with force, they made reform in hope of satisfying indigenous peoples
    • 1.      reforms were too late and African leaders wanted independence, not reform
  15. Clearest calls
    •                                                               i.      Clearest calls came from generations of young African leaders educated in Europe and US
    • 1.      US ones were influenced by pan-African ideas of WEB Du Bois and Marcus Garvey
  16. Du Bois and Garvey
    • a.      Du Bois: educated in Harvard
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      leader of movement that tried to make all Africans of their own cultural heritage
    • b.      Garvey
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      stressed need for the unity of all Africans
  17. Leaders and movements
    • 1.      Leaders and movements in individual African nations appeared
    • a.      Jomo Kenyatta wrote Facing Mount Kenya, and argued that British rule was destroying traditional culture of the peoples of black Africa
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