Gastrointestinal 1

  1. Primary function of gastrointestinal system
    Provide cells with nutrients
  2. Where are nutrients contained?
    In the food we eat
  3. Nutrients in food needed for
    Metabolism, growth, repair
  4. Food entering mouth
  5. Ingested food broken down into absorbable parts
  6. Digested food (nutrients) enter bloodstream
  7. Undigested food removed from body
  8. Muscular tube from mouth to anus
    Alimentary canal or gastrointestinal/digestive tract
  9. Process by which bolus moves through alimentary canal
  10. Alimentary canal includes
    • Mouth (oral cavity)
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small intestine
    • Large intestine
  11. Accessory organs of the gastrointestinal system
    • Salivary glands
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
  12. Function of accessory organs of the gastrointestinal system
    Release secretions into GI tract
  13. Other names for alimentary canal
    • Gastrointestinal tract
    • Digestive tract
  14. Mucous membrane with goblet cells
  15. Protect structures below from acidic secretions
  16. Absorption in small intestine is achieved by
    Microvilli of the mucosa
  17. Connective tissue below mucosa
  18. Submucosa contains
    Blood vessels and nerves, mucus secreting glands in small intestine
  19. Smooth muscle that contributes to peristalsis
  20. Serous membrane that forms peritoneum in abdominopelvic cavity
  21. Number of layers of muscularis in stomach
  22. Walls of the GI tract, inner to outer
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • Muscularis
    • Serosa
  23. Serous membrane that lines abdominopelvic cavity and folds back to cover most organs in the cavity
  24. Peritoneum contains
    Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves
  25. Function of peritoneum
    Allows organs to slide over each other without friction
  26. Lines abdominopelvic cavity
    Parietal peritoneum
  27. Covers organs in cavity
    Visceral peritoneum
  28. Subdivisions of peritoneum
    • Mesentary
    • Mesocolon
    • Greater omentum
    • Lesser omentum
  29. Posterior abdominal wall to small intestine
    Mesentery subdivision of peritoneum
  30. Form of mesentery subdivision of peritoneum
    Paper thin, vascular, anchors small intestine
  31. Structures of oral cavity
    • Teeth
    • Tongue
    • Hard palate
    • Soft palate
    • Uvula
  32. Functions of oral cavity
    • Receives food by ingestion and breaks it into small particles by chewing
    • Mixes food with saliva from salivary glands, which contain enzyme salivary amylase
  33. Mastication
  34. Mechanical digestion
  35. Beginning of chemical digestion occurs
    In the oral cavity by salivary amylase
  36. What is partially digested in the oral cavity?
  37. Deglutination
  38. Only voluntary part of digestion
  39. Tongue aids in
    Chewing, swallowing, sense of taste
  40. Function of teeth
  41. How many deciduous teeth?
  42. More proper name for baby teeth
    Deciduous teeth
  43. Age before adult teeth come in
    2-6 years
  44. How many permanent teeth
  45. How many incisors
  46. How many cuspids
  47. How many molars
  48. Other names for cuspids
    Eye teeth, canines
  49. Three parts or pharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Nasopharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  50. Lump of food that you swallow
  51. Swallowing occurs by
    Involuntary reflex
  52. Raise to keep food out of nasal cavity
    Uvula, soft palate
  53. Raises to seal off oral cavity
  54. Covers trachea to keep food out of respiratory tract
  55. 10 inch long muscular tube
  56. Length consists of laryngopharynx to stomach
  57. Hole in diaphragm esophagus passes through
    Esophageal hiatus
  58. Functions of esophagus
    • Lubricates swallowed food
    • Moves food by gravity and peristalsis to stomach
  59. Digestion occurs in esophagus?
  60. J-shaped organ
  61. Location of stomach
  62. Divisions of stomach
    • Fundus
    • Body
    • Pylorus
  63. Upper part of stomach
  64. Part of stomach with greater curvature and lesser curvature
  65. Lower part of stomach
  66. Sphincter between esophagus and stomach
    Cardiac/esophageal sphincter
  67. Sphincter between stomach and small intestine
    Pyloric sphincter
  68. Innermost layer of mucous membrane that lies in folds of the stomach
  69. Number of layers of smooth muscle in the stomach
  70. Functions of stomach
    • Storage
    • Mixing of bolus
    • Gastric juice secretion
    • Mucus secretion
    • Secretion of hydrochloric acid
  71. When stomach is functioning as storage, what happens to rugae?
  72. Chemical digestion in the stomach is achieved by
    Gastric juice
  73. Destroys swallowed pathogens
    Hydrochloric acids
  74. Digests proteins in stomach
  75. HCl
    Hydrochloric acid
  76. Activates pepsin
    Hydrochloric acid
  77. Bolus turns into what in the stomach
  78. Highly acidic semi-liquid material
  79. Chyme is a mix of
    Food and gastric juice
  80. Where does chyme go?
    Out of stomach, through pyloric sphincter, to small intestine
  81. Longest section of the GI tract
    Small intestine
  82. Length of small intestine
    20 feet
  83. Diameter of small intestine
    1 inch
  84. Divisions of small intestine
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  85. Functions of the small intestine
    • Secretion of mucous
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
  86. Most digestion occurs in
    The small intestine
  87. Lining of small intestine secretes
    Enzymes that digest proteins and carbs
  88. Liver and pancreas release their digestive enzymes through
    Opening in duodenum
  89. Chemical digestion of starches/carbohydrates to sugar achieved by
  90. Chemical digestion of proteins to amino acids achieved by
    Peptidase called Trypsin
  91. Chemical digestion of fat to fatty acids and glycerol achieved by
  92. Chemical digestion of nucleic acid achieved by
  93. Amylase, peptidase, lipase, and nuclease located in
    Small intestine
  94. Amylase breaks down
  95. Trypsin breaks down
    Amino acids
  96. Peptidase breaks down
    Amino acids
  97. Lipase breaks down
    Fatty acids and glycerol
  98. Nuclease breaks down
    Nucleic acids
  99. Most absorption of digested food and water occurs in
    Small intestine
  100. Increase surface area for absorption
    Villi and microvilli
  101. Contain blood vessels to absorb digested nutrients
    Villi and microvilli
  102. Contain lacteals to absorb digested fat
    Villi and microvilli
  103. Large intestine begins where
  104. Length of large intestine
    5 feet
  105. Diameter of large intestine
    2.5 inches
  106. Large intestine appears
  107. Large blind-ended pouch at the beginning of the large intestine
  108. Ascending colon located in
    Right abdomen
  109. Descending colon located in
    Left abdomen
  110. Ileocecal valve located
    In cecum
  111. Vermiform appendix located
    Off the cecum
  112. Order of parts of large intestine
    • Ileocecal valve into cecum
    • Ascending colon
    • Transverse colon
    • Descending colon
    • Sigmoid colon
    • Rectum
    • Anus
  113. Functions of large intestine
    • Secrete mucus
    • Reabsorbs water from feces
    • Stores undigested food (feces)
    • Propel solid waste towards rectum
    • Normal flora produce Vitamin K and some B vitamins
  114. Occurs when voluntary sphincter relaxes
  115. Digestion occurs in large intestine?
  116. Digestion occurs in
    Oral cavity, stomach, small intestine
  117. Digestion doesn’t occur in
    Esophagus, Large intestine
  118. Destroys normal flora, causes diarrhea
  119. Function of salivary glands
    From saliva, empty secretions into mouth through duct
  120. Moistens and lubricates food, secretes enzyme amylase, keeps teeth clean
    Functions of saliva
  121. Contains antibodies and enzyme called lysozyme to control bacteria in mouth
  122. Parotid glands are located
    Near ear
  123. Submandibular or submaxillary glands are located
    Lower jaw
  124. Sublingual glands are located
    Under tongue
  125. Located in mostly RUQ, is the largest gland in the body, reddish brown in color, very vascular
  126. Waste products are removed from liver by the
    Hepatic vein
  127. Hepatic portal circulation
    Look it up again
  128. Produces bile
  129. Stores glucose
  130. Modifies fats for use in body
  131. Stores vitamins, iron
  132. Forms blood plasma proteins
  133. Hemolysis
  134. Creates urea
  135. Detoxifies or removes harmful substances (alcohol, drugs)
  136. Gives feces brown color
    Bilirubin, byproduct of RBC breakdown
  137. Urea is released from where, travel by what, end where?
    Liver, blood, kidney
  138. Glucose is stored in liver as
  139. Function of bile
    Contains salts to emulsify fat
  140. Where does bile leave the lobes of the liver?
    Through two ducts that merge to form common hepatic duct
  141. BUN tests check for
    Kidney function
  142. Anemia overwhelms the
  143. Muscular sac below liver
  144. Stores bile which drains down common hepatic duct, then flows upward through cystic duct
  145. Merges with common hepatic duct to form common bile duct
    Cystic duct
  146. These two ducts merge to form common bile duct
    Common hepatic duct, Cystic duct
  147. Releases stored bile when chyme enters small intestine
  148. Accessory organ of GI system that is responsible for fat digestion
    Gallbladder (bile from liver)
  149. Long gland that extends from duodenum to spleen
  150. Exocrine secretions leave pancreas through
    Pancreatic duct
  151. Pancreatic duct merges to join
    Common bile duct
  152. Secretes digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate into small intestine to neutralize acidic chyme
  153. Chemical digestion of starches/carbohydrates to sugar, supplied by pancreas
    Pancreatic amylase
  154. Chemical digestion of proteins to amino acids, supplied by pancreas
    Pancreatic Trypsin
  155. Chemical digestion of fat to fatty acids and glycerol, supplied by pancreas
    Pancreatic lipase
  156. Chemical digestion of nucleic acids RNA and DNA, supplied by pancreas
  157. Endocrine function of pancreas
    Produces two hormones (insulin and glucagon) that regulate blood sugar
Card Set
Gastrointestinal 1
Gastrointestinal Human Body