GI system Human Body

  1. Define ingestion.
    food ENTERS mouth
  2. Define digestion.
    ingested food broken down into parts to be absorbed
  3. Define absorption.
    digested food (nutrients) enter bloodstream
  4. Define elimination.
    undigested food removed from body
  5. Peristalsis
    wave-like muscle movement that moves food down
  6. What is the GI tract AKA?
    alimentary canal, digestive tract
  7. What are the ACCESSORY organs of the GI system?
    salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
  8. What kind of cells does the mucosa have?
    Goblet cells and microvilli in small intestine
  9. connective tissue below mucosa full of blood vessels and nerves
  10. smooth muscle that mixes food with digestive juices and propels in through system
  11. serous membrane that forms peritoneum in abdominopelvic cavity
  12. function of the parietal peritoneum
    lines abdominopelvic cavity
  13. function of the visceral peritoneum
    covers organs in cavity
  14. What is the mesentery?
    posterior abdominal wall to small intestine
  15. Saliva contains an enzyme called ________ ___________ that begins chemical digestion.
    salivary amylase
  16. oral cavity structures (5)
    tongue, teeth, hard palate, soft palate, uvula
  17. Where is the lesser omentum?
    between the stomach and liver
  18. What is the mesocolon?
    posterior abdominal wall to colon
  19. This is the lower border of the stomach that loops back up to the transverse colon.
    greater omentum
  20. The reception of food by ingestion that is broken into smaller particles by chewing
  21. What is used during mastication?
    tongue, teeth, lips
  22. mastication is a part of ___________ digestion.
  23. What enzyme starts chemical digestion?
    salivary amylase
  24. This is the only voluntary part of digestion and is when food moves toward throat for swallowing.
  25. Define bolus.
    ball-like mass of food that is moved and passed into pharynx
  26. This covers the trachea to keep food out of the resp. tract.
  27. how many deciduous teeth do we have?
    20 (baby teeth)
  28. How many permanent teeth do we have?
    32 (adult teeth)
  29. Three parts of pharynx.
    Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
  30. Is swallowing voluntary or involuntary?
  31. This is the 10-inch muscular tube that connects laryngopharynx to stomach.
  32. The esophagus passes through this hole in the diaphragm before it enters to stomach.
    esophageal hiatus
  33. This structure helps to lubricate food and moves in downward (with the help of gravity) and peristalsis.
  34. This J-shaped organ is in the LUQ and has three divisions.
  35. What are the three divisions of the stomach? Differentiate between them.
    Fundus: upper part

    Body: greater curvature and lesser curtature

    Pylorus: lower part
  36. This is the innermost layer of mucous membrane that lies in folds in the stomach
  37. This sphincter is between the esophagus and stomach
    cardiac/esophageal sphincter
  38. This sphincter is between the stomach and the small intestine.
    pyloric sphincter
  39. What two types of digestion occur in the stomach?
    mechanical digestion and chemical digestion
  40. this occurs when cells secrete substances that mix to form gastric juice
    chemical digestion
  41. as a result of mechanical and chemical digestion, the stomach forms _____.
  42. highly acidic semi-liquid material (food + gastric juice)
  43. This makes up the longest section of the GI tract
    small intestine
  44. how long is the small intestine?
    20 feet
  45. The three divisions of the small intestine:
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  46. Most of the digestion in this system occurs where?
    in the small intestine
  47. Amylase function
    chemical digestion of starches/carbs to sugar
  48. Peptidase function, and what is is called?
    Trypsin; chemical digestion of proteins to amino acids
  49. Lipase function
    chemical digestion of fat to fatty acids and glycerol
  50. Nuclease function
    chemical digestion of nucleic acids
  51. Most absorption of digested food and water occurs in the ?
    small intestine
  52. These two things increase area for absorption in the small intestine. They also contain blood vessels to absorb digested nutrients and lacteals to absorb digested fat
    villi and microvilli
  53. This organ begins in the RUQ, is 5 feet long, and 2.5 inches in diameter
    large intestine
  54. This organ is 20 feet long and is 1 inch in diameter.
    small intestine
  55. Define cecum.
  56. 6 parts of the large intestine:
    ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
  57. Define defacation.
    when voluntary sphincter relaxes and you are able to pass waste
  58. This organ secretes mucus but no digestive enzymes.
    Large intestine
  59. This organ reabsorbs water from feces and stores undigested food.
    large intestine
  60. This accessory organ produces saliva, and its glands empty into the mouth through ducts.
    salivary glands
  61. Three types of salivary glands and their locations:
    Parotid glands (near ear)

    Submandibular or submaxillary glands (lower jaw)

    Sublingual glands (under tongue)
  62. 4 functions of saliva:
    moistens food

    secretes salivary amylase (begins chem. digestion)

    keeps teeth clean

    Contains antibodies and enzyme lysozyme to control bacteria in mouth
  63. muscular sac below liver that stores bile
  64. this organ produces bile
  65. this liquid contains salt to emulsify fat so it can be absorbed
  66. this organ stores glucose as glycogen
  67. Bile travels from the liver through the _____ _________ duct then upward towards the gallbladder through the _______ duct.
    common hepatic duct; cystic duct
  68. This organ forms blood plasma proteins, destroys worn out RBCs, creates urea as waste product of protein metabolism, and detoxifies harmful substances from blood (alcohol and drugs)
  69. This is the organ that secretes digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate into small intestine to neutralize acidic chyme.
  70. 4 exocrine secretions of the pancreas:
    Pancreatic amylase (chem digestion of starches/carbs)

    Pancreatic Trypsin (chem digestion of proteins)

    Pancreatic lipase (chem digestion of fat)

    Nuclease (chem digestion of nucleic acids)
Card Set
GI system Human Body
GI system Human Body