Sociology chap. 7 deviance

  1. deviance
    the recognized violation of cultural norms
  2. biological theories: deviance
    • focus on individual abnormality
    • explain human behavior as the result of biological instincts
  3. psychological theories: deviance
    • focus on individual abnormality
    • see deviance as the result of "unsuccessful socialization"
  4. sociological theories: deviance
    • view all behavior (deviance as well as conformity) as products of society
    • what is deviant varies from place to place according to cultural norms
    • behavior and individuals become deviant as others define them that way
    • what and who a society defines as deviant reflect who has and does not have social power
  5. Durkheim claimed that deviance is a normal element of society that
    • affirms cultural norms and values
    • clarifies moral boundaries
    • brings people together
    • encourages social change
  6. Structural-functional: deviance
    • macro-level
    • deviance is a basic part of social organization
    • by defining deviance, society sets its moral boundaries
    • deviance is universal; it exists in all societies
  7. Symbolic-interaction: deviance
    • micro-level
    • deviance is part of socially constructed reality that emerges in interaction
    • deviance comes into being as individuals label something deviant
    • deviance is variable; any act or person may or may not be labeled deviant
  8. Social-conflict: deviance
    • macro-level
    • deviance results from social inequality
    • norms, including laws, reflect the interests of powerful members of society
    • deviance is political; people with little power are at high risk of being labeled deviant
  9. Sutherland's differential association theory
    links deviance to how much others encourage or discourage such behavior (peer pressure)
  10. labeling theory
    claims that deviance depends less on what someone does than on how others react to that behavior
  11. medicalization of deviance
    • the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
    • in practice, this means a change in labels replacing "good" and "bad" with "well" and "sick"
  12. 2 major categories of serious crime
    • crimes against the person
    • crimes against property
  13. 4 justifications of punishment
    • retribution
    • deterrence
    • rehabilitation
    • societal protection
  14. retribution
    an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime
  15. deterrence
    the attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment
  16. rehabilitation
    a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses
  17. societal protection
    rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution
  18. white-collar offenses
    committed by people of high social position as part of their jobs
  19. corporate crime
    illegal actions by a corporation or people acting on its behalf
  20. organized crime
    a long history in the US, especially among categories of people with few legitimate opportunities
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Sociology chap. 7 deviance