1. The Hopeful Years (1924-1929)
    • a.      formation of new governments in Britain and France allowed conciliatory approach to Germany and reparations problem
    • b.      also, new German government led by Gustav Stresemann ended the policy of passive resistance and committed Geramany to carry out most of the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles while seeking a new settlement of the reparations question 
  2. German gov.
    • a.      at the same time, the German government stabilized the currency and ended the extreme inflation by creating new temporary currency
    • b.      August 1924: international commission produced a new plan for reparations called the Dawes Plan after the American banner who chaired the commission, it reduced reparations and stabilized Germany’s payments on the basis of its ability to Pay
    •                                                               i.      also grated an initial $200 million lan for German recovery, which allowed for heavy American investments in Europeà era of European prosperity
  3. Spirit of Locarno
    •                                                               i.      prosperityà new efforts at European diplomacy
    •                                                             ii.      international cooperation created by German and French foreign ministers, Gustav Stressman and Aristide Briand, who concluded Treaty of Locarno      
    • 1.      guaranteed Germany’s new western borders with France and Belgium
  4. Germany's brder
    a.      although Germany’s new eastern borders with Poland were conspicuously absent from agreement, a clear indication that Germany didn’t accept those borders as permanent, the Locarno pact was viewed by many as the beginning of a new era of European peace
  5. Germany's entry
    •                                                               i.      Germany’s entry into League of Nations reinforced idea of conciliation
    • 1.      two years later, similar optimistic attitudes prevailed in the Kellogg Briand pact, drafted by the American secretary of state Frank B Kellogg and French foreign minister Briand
    • a.      63 nations agreed to renounce war, but there was no say about violation
  6. Little real substance
    •                                                               i.      based on little real substance
    • 1.      Germany lacked military power to alter western borders
    • 2.      disarmament was ignored
    • a.      although Germany did so, states didn’t trust security to anyone but their own military forces
    • 3.      when the war disarmament conference met in Gemeva in 1932, the issue was dead
  7. Coexistence with Soviet Russia
    •                                                               i.      soviets hopes for Communist revolutions in Western states dissipated
    • 1.      these states realized that the Bolshevik regime couldn’t be ousted
    • a.      1924: Germany, Britain, France, and Italy, and several smaller European countries, had established full diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia
    •                                                             ii.      Still, Western powers were suspicious of Soviets
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