Dairying is the _________&__________ of _________, _________, and__________ milk and milk products.
science & business of prodcution, processing, and marketing
What is the primary milk producing mammal in the world?
WHat is the term for the normal secretion of the udder?
What are 2 reasons why milk is subjected to rigorous checks for quality?
2.it is harvested twice daily
What are 3 criteria used to descirbe the quality of milk and milk products?
1. cleanlines and santation
2. desirable flavor & aroma
3. free from any formo of chemical contamination
What is the primary source of income for dairymen?
production of raw milk
What is the general recommendation as to where to keep milk in te refrigeratior?
Assured and enhanced safety of milk & milk products:
Paralleled the devlopment of veterinary medicine:
Resulted in uniform suspension of fat globules in milk:
Faster turn around time in determination of milk fat:
electronic milk fat test
Symbolizes that milk is truly a natural product:
When one examines a food label, what 2 major and important items of nutritional information are on the label?
1. percent daily value
2. serving size
What 3 major nutrients in ilk make up most of the total solids?
carbohydrates, proteins, fats
Name 5 quality acceptance tests done on the milk sample taken by the milk hauler and the reciever of milk at the processing plant.
1. odor & appearance test
2. temperature test
3. acidity test
4. microscopic reading
5. milk fat
What is the relationship between temperature of pasteurization and the exposure time of the milk to that temperature?
high temperature - short time
The nutrient composition of milk from dairy cattle varies in response to what environmental factor?
nutrition or feed
Name the most important risk factor that no one can control that is related to incidence of coronary disease. What is the most important risk factor that can be controlled?
hereditary cannot be controlled, diet can be controlled
What is meant by essential amino acids?
essential for humans and cannot be synthesized by humans
What is the main reason why some individuals have a problem drinking milk?
deficiency of the enzyme lactase
Milk is an excellent source of what mineral and what 2 B-complex vitamins?
Calcium & Riboflavin
What is the major difference betweens weet acidophilus milk and cultured buttermilk?
the milk is kept cold after the addition of the lactic acid culture until it is consumed
What is responsible for most spoilage in milk and milk products?
What is a major contributor of overrun in ice cream?
What is the reason for homogenization of the ice cream mix when making ice cream? What is the reason for the blades or dashers inside the ice cream freezer?
to break the milkfat into smaller particles. The dashers keep the ice cream moving to prevent a fozen solid mass
coagulation of casein
use of extreme cold to destroy melanocyte
Dehorning at an early age:
safety & ease
Persistency of Lactation:
Highest milk production:
Youngest dairy breed introduced in the US:
highest percentage of milk fat:
Uniformity of conformation:
Give 3 examples of workability traits:
1. proper teat size
2. upstanding stature
3. fast milker
WHat is a single deficiency of management that causes loss of income for the dairymen?
poor record keeping
What are 3 major expamples of records that help dairyment improve the breeding, feeding, & management of the herd?
1. milk & fat production
3. herd health
What 3 factors affect exposure time when freeze branding?
1. age of heifers
3. clipping procedure
Desirable levels of blood cholesterol:
below 200 mg/dl
Systolic/Diastolc blood pressure:
<140mm Hg/ <85 mm Hg
Calcium, phosphorus, & magnesium:
precursor of vitamin A
pH of normal milk
all milk protein
20,000 counts per ml:
maximum legal standard for bacteria in pasteurized milk
hardening of the arteries
glucose & galactose
stabilizes emulsion of fat in milk
legal standard for fat in homogenized, Vitamin D added milk
Dr. Louis Pasteur:
titratable acidity of fermented products
legal fat content of butter
useful & harmful bacteria and their control
Fat-free milk contains all of the vitamins originally present in milk.
As the temperature of pasteurization increases, the shorter the exposure time of the milk to that temperature.
The percentage of fat in milk from dairy cows is highest at the peak of the lactation period.
There are not differences in the length of time it takes for newborn mammals to double their birth weights.
As the amount of milk produced by a cow increases, the precentages of fat, lactose, and protein decrease.
It is an excess of cholestrol in the blood and not cholesterol as such that poses danger of coronary heart disease.
The requirement of ruminants for the essential amino acids is met by providindg the animal with high quaility protein in their diet.
All cows of dairy breeds have the same cabability to convert carotene to Vitamin A.
The higher the quality of ice cream, the higher the value for overrun.
Dairy character and not the udder has the higest relationship to milk production.
Cows enrolled in DHI program produce more milk than non-DHI cows.
When screening for somatic cell counts in cow's milk or milk in the bulk tank, the thicker the gel formation, the higher the number of these cells in milk.
Overrun in butter is 1.25 time more than the original amount of fat.
Milk with a freezing point above the legal limit is considered milk with added water.
Why do ruminants not have to be fed high quality protein?
Because the rumen, the largest compartment of the cows stomach contains symbiotic microorganisms that utilize ammonia from non-protein nitrogen, such as urea or from degradation of natural protein to produce their own micorbial body protein that is of high quality.
Why must milk from cows treated with antibiotics be discarded or withheld from the market milk supply?
1. It cause cause allergic reactions in susceptible cosnsumers
2. inhibiti growth of bacteria necessary in the production of cultured dairy prodcuts.
Why must milk production from cows belonging to different dairy breeds be corrected to fat-corrected milk (FCM) basis?
It equates the milk producted by each breed into a common 4% milk fat basis so valid comparisions can be made.
What doe sthe Dairy Cattle Unified Score Card describe and represent?
frame, dairy character, body capacity, feet & legs, udder. It is an attempt to produced a more perfect & beautiful cow.
Milk production of cows in registered DHI records Programs are standardized based on what 3 factors?