1. Czar Nicholas I
    Emperor of Russia (1825-1855), King of Poland, paternal autocrat

    Sig: Most reactionary of Russian monarchs
  2. Czar Alexander II
    Emperor of Russia (1855-1881), King of Poland, “Alexander the Liberator”

    Sig:Emancipation of the serfs in 1861
  3. Napoleon III
    First President of the French Republic (1848-1852), ruler of Second French Empire (1852-1870) - First titular president, last monarch of France

    Sig:Instituted foreign policy that abandoned limitations imposed on France since Concert of Europe and reasserted French influence in Europe. Supported nationalism and popular sovereignty, opposed reactionary policy
  4. Charles-Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia
    • King of Piedmont-Sardinia (1831-1849) during Risorgimento movement for unification of Italy, believed in divine right but viewed self as popular liberator of Italy
    • Sig: Abdicated after Austria defeated his forces as the Battle of Novara in 1849, accelerated social and economic development
  5. Wilhelm I
    King of Prussia (1861-1888) and First German Emperor (1871-1888)

    Sig: Unification of Germany and establishment of German Empire
  6. Prince Alexander Gorchakov
    Russian statesman and respected, influential diplomat, state chancellor of Russian Empire (1863-1883)

    Sig: Promoted Dreikaiserbund, an alliance between Alexander II of Russia, Wilhelm I of Germany, Joseph I of Austria-Hungary
  7. Franz Joseph I
    Emperor of Austria-Hungary (1848-1916), President of German Confederation (1850-1866)

    Sig: Reactionary, resisted constitutionalism in early reign, troubled by nationalism
  8. Count Camillo Cavour
    Founder of original Liberal Party, Prime Minister of Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (1852-1861)

    Sig: Leader in Risorgimento movement toward Italian unification
  9. Prince Otto von Bismarck- Schonhausen
    Conservative German statesman, unified most of German states into German Empire under Prussian leadership. Called on by King William. 

    Sig: Unification of Germany created balance of power which preserved European peace from 1871 to 1914
  10. Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke
    German Field Marshal, chief of staff of Prussian Army for 30 years (1822-1888)

    Sig: Great strategist of latter 19th century, creator of more modern method of directing armies in the field
  11. Alexander Herzen
    Russian writer and thinker, father of Russian socialism and agrarian populism

    Sig: Created political climate that led to the emancipation of the serfs in 1861
  12. Crown Prince Frederich
    (Frederick III) German Emperor and King of Prussia for 99 days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors

    Sig:Liberal ideology despite conservative family background, humane conduct, sought greater representation for commoners in gov
  13. Field Marshal von Roon
    Prussian soldier and statesman, Minister of War (1859-1873), conservative and reactionary supporter of monarchy

    Sig: Improved efficiency of army, unification of Germany under Prussian leadership
  14. Marshal Bazaine
    French General and a Marshal of France (1831-1873)

    Sig: Surrendered last organized French army to Prussians during Franco-Prussian war
  15. Marshal MacMahon
    Marshal of France, Chief of State (1873-1875), president of the Third Republic (1875-1879)

    Sig: Commanded I and V French Corps on Rhine Army’s Southern line in Franco Prussian War
  16. Florence Nightengale
    Social reformer and statistician, founder of modern nursing, served during Crimean War where she made rounds at night

    Sig: Opened secular nursing school, improved healthcare + work opportunity for women
  17. Nicholas Bakunin
    (Mikhail Bakunin) Russian anarchist, philosopher, revolutionary 

    Sig: Father of anarchist theory
  18. Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
    Prussian candidate for Spanish throne after Spanish Revolution of 1868 – supported by Otto von Bismarck but not Napoleon III – declined offer

    Sig: Ems Telegram provoked the French into declaring Franco-Prussian war after Leopold declined the throne
  19. Count Benedetti
    French diplomat

    Sig: Instigation of Franco-Prussian war – instructed to present King of Prussia in Ems with the French demands – misinformation led both countries to believe the other had insulted them, instigating the war.
  20. Czar Alexander III
    Emperor of Russia (1881-1894)

    Sig: Reversed some liberal measures of father Alexander II
  21. General Loris-Melikov
    Russian statesman, General of Cavalry

    Sig: Policy of cooperation with liberals in attempt to restore order, strict with revolutionaries.Conservators dismissed his work as a step toward constitution at Council of Ministers 1811
  22. Victor-Emmanuel II
    King of Sardinia 1849-1861, King of Italy 1861-1878

    Sig: First king of united Italy, Father of the Homeland
  23. Karl Marx
    Prussian-German socialist

    Sig: Establishment of social sciences and socialist movement, basis for understanding of labor in relation to capital – The Communist Manifesto
  24. Friedrich Engels
    German social scientist, father of Marxist theory

    Sig: The Condition of the Working Class in England, perpetuator of socialism
  25. Treaty of Paris, 1856
    Settled Crimean War between Russia and {Ottoman, British, French, Sardinia}

    Sig: Made Black Sea neutral territory, marked setback to Russian influence
  26. Plombieres Accord
    Secret pact between France and Sardinia

    Sig: France required to provide Sardinia w/military aid for liberation of Lombardy and Venice from Austria and creation of northern Italian state
  27. Risorgimento
    Italian unification movement of 19th century

    Sig: Led by Cavour, manifestation of nationalism
  28. Ems Dispatch
    Message from Prussian king Wilhelm I’s site to Bismarck – reported demands made by French ambassador Bendetti

    Sig: Caused France to declare Franco-Prussian War 1870
  29. Battle of Magenta
    June 4, 1859 during Second Italian War of Independence

    Sig: French, Sardinian victory under Napoleon III against Austrians under Gyulai
  30. Battle of Koniggratz/Sadowa
    July 3, 1866 – decisive battle in Austro-Prussian War

    Sig: Kingdom of Prussia defeated Austrian Empire
  31. House of Savoy
    Formed in 11th century in Savoy region

    Sig: Grew to rule unified Kingdom of Italy 1861 to end of WWII
  32. Kleinedeutschland
    Lesser Germany

    Sig: Sought to unify northern German states without Austria – promoted by Prussia
  33. Grossedeutschland
    Greater Germany

    Sig: Favored unifying all German-speaking people under one state – promoted by Austrian Empire
  34. Zollverein
    German customs union – union of German states formed to manage customs and economic policy – established 1834

    Sig: Created national economic unity, promoted internal trade
  35. Battle of Solferino
    June 24, 1859 – victory of allied French under Napoleon III and Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel II over Austria under Franz Joseph I

    Sig: Decisive battle of Second Italian War of Independence – nationalist struggle to unify Italy
  36. Battle of Sedan
    September 1, 1870 – during Franco-Prussian War

    Sig: Resulted in capture of Napoleon II, decided the war in favor of Prussia
  37. Battle of Metz
    August-October 1870 during Franco Prussian War

    Sig: Decisive Prussian victory – French Marshal Bazaine with MacMahon as reinforcement
  38. Treaty of Vienna
    Peace treaty October 1864 between Austria, Prussia, Denmark

    Sig: Ended Second War of Schleswig – Prussia got Schleswig, Austria got Holstein
  39. Bundesrat
    Legislative body represented 16 Lander at federal level

    Sig: Laws affecting state and constitutional changes – required consent of body – King of Prussia was President of the council
  40. Schleswig-Holstein Crisis
    Conflict over succession and administration of Schleswig and Holstein 

    Sig: Enabled Prussian Bismarck to dominate formation of modern state of Germany
  41. Peace treaty ended Austro-Prussian War
  42. Sig: Lenient toward Austrian Empire b/c Bismarck convinced William I that maintaining Austria’s place in Europe would benefit Prussia in future
  43. Treaty of Frankfurt
    Parts of Alsace and Lorraine ceded to Germany from France
  44. Reichstag
    Legislative assembly lower house (1871-1918) representing the people in Northern German Confederation and German Empire

    Sig: Representation of the people, legislation shared between Reichstag and Bundesrat
  45. North German Confederation
    First modern German nation state, founded 1815

    Sig: Basis for German Empire, unification of Germany
  46. Reichsrat
    Austrian bicameral parliament (1867-1918)

    Sig: Upper house of parliament
  47. Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia
    Russian General in World War I. Successful commander and viceroy in the Caucasus.
  48. Zemstvo
    Local government during great liberal reforms in Imperial Russia by Alexander II – put into effect 1864

    Sig: Allowed greater population more say in administration of parts of their lives
  49. Paris Commune
    Government which ruled Paris March 18 to May 28 1871

    Sig: Served as local authority, first assumption of power by working class
  50. French Third Republic
    Republican government of France 1870-1940

    Sig: Republican government triumphant over monarchy
  51. Emancipation of the Serfs
    1861 – Russia – emancipation of serfs on private estates

    Sig: First and most liberal reform of Alexander II – over 23 million freed
  52. Second Reich
    Hohenzollerns ruled united Germany 1871-1919

    Sig: Created by Bismarck, German unification
  53. Kaiser
    Emperor of German Empire

    Sig: Gained negative connotations after application to Wilhelm II in WWII
  54. Ausgleich of 1867
    Compromise between Austria and Hungary – one monarch ruled both separate kingdoms, which were otherwise separate

    Sig: Established dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, reestablished sovereignty of Hungary – separate from Austrian Empire
  55. Russification
    Cultural assimilation process by which non-Russian communities give up culture and adopt Russian one

    Sig: Led to russianisms and disappearance of cultures
  56. Blood and Iron
    Speech by Bismarck in 1862 about unification of German territories

    Sig: Stressed need for military preparedness – used effective war in unification and expansion of Germany
  57. Kulturkampf
    German policies in relation to secularity and influence of Roman Catholic Church (1871-1878) by Bismarck

    Sig: Made Catholics feel persecuted in a predominantly Protestant nation – Bismarck sought to appeal to liberals and protestants by reducing influence of Catholic Church
  58. Nihilism
    Philosophical doctrine suggesting meaninglessness of life

    Sig: Characterized rationalism – all rationalist theory should be replaced by faith – Nihilist movement in Russia (nothing that existed was favorable)
  59. Kingdom of Italy
    State founded in 1861 when King Emmanuel II of Sardinia proclaimed King of Italy

    Sig: Result of unification of Italy
  60. The People’s Will
    Illegal Russian revolutionary organization, active 1870s, headed by Executive Committee 

    Sig: Assassinated Alexander II, peasant-oriented socialist movement
  61. The Third Section
    Office created 1826 by Nicholas I to conduct secret police operations

    Sig: Repressive – arrested Populists 1870s, gathered info on political dissidents
  62. Redemption Fees
    Term of Emancipation Reform of 1861 in which serfs must pay landowner for portion of land in series of payments

    Sig: Reduced potential self-sufficiency of peasants
  63. Mir (village council)
    Peasant communities in Imperial Russia

    Sig: Majority peasants held land in communal ownership – practical economically for peasants to pay taxes and ensure land
  64. Crimean War
    • (1853-1856) – Russia vs {French, British, Ottoman, Sardinia}
    • Who should protect Christian shrines

    Sig: Long-running contest for influence in territories of declining Ottoman empire, one of first modern wars – Florence Nightingale
  65. Marxism
    Economic and sociopolitical method based on materialist interpretation of historical development

    Sig: Marx and Engels – class conflict within capitalism stems from contradictions between proletariat and surplus profit of bourgeoisie
  66. Socialism (Utopian)
    Socialist thought of Saint-Simon, Fourier, Owen – regarded as naïve and fanciful

    Sig: Inspired work of Marx and early socialists – wanted to expand principles of French Revolution to create rational society and economic system
  67. Liberalism
    Political philosophy founded on ideas of liberty, equality, justice – rejected divine right, hereditary privilege

    Sig: Prompted revolutions including French Revolution, demanded representative government – laissez faire
  68. Conservatism
    Political/social philosophy promotes retaining traditional institutions

    Sig: Opposed liberalism
  69. Romanticism
    Artistic, literary, intellectual movement partially as reaction to Industrial Revolution, Age of Enlightenment, rationalization of nature

    Sig: Impacted liberalism, radicalism, growth of nationalism
  70. Nationalism
    Strong identification of individuals with a nation

    Sig: Intensified push for popular sovereignty which surfaced in French and American Revolutions
  71. Villafranca Accord
    Signed July 1859 by France and Austria – ended Austro-Franco-Sardinian war of Italian War of Independence

    Sig: Austria lost Lombardy to Emmanuel II, restoring kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
  72. Gastein Convention of 1865
    Treaty signed in Austria

    Sig: Agreements between powers ofGerman Confederation: Prussia and Austria over governing Schleswig, Holstein, Saxe-Lauenburg – Benefited Prussia, but did not ease Austro-Prussian rivalry
Card Set
Chapter 23 and 25