AP u8A

  1. intern syndrome
    tendency to see in oneself the characteristics of the disorder
  2. insane/insanity
    • 1. not medical terms
    • 2. when is individual no longer responsible for their behavior
  3. psychological disorder (2 parts)
    • a "harmful disfunction" in which behavior is judged to be: 
    • 1. atypical/disturbing: unusual behavior not shared by many in population/violates cultural std; disturbing to others 
    • 2. maladaptive: disturbing to individual 
    • 3. unjustifiable: irrational perceptual cognitive disfunctions; doesn't make sense to average person
  4. Philipe Pinel
    not demon possesion; sickness of the mind caused by severe stresses
  5. medical model:
    • 1. any illnesses can be diagnosed, treated, cured 
    • 2. mental illness can be cured in treatment and therapy
  6. Perspectives on disorders
    • 1. psychoanalytic: because of conflict with id, ego and superego/ conflict not resolved in childhood 
    • 2. humanistic: problem with self-esteem and self-concept/ people too sensitive to criticism 
    • 3. cognitive: having abnormal thoughts or maladaptive thinking/misinterpret things 
    • 4. behavioral/learning: basic observations ex: fear/ abnormal is learned, rewarded, reinforced 
    • 5. psychophysiological: genetic factors, physical states, interpsychological states, 
    • 6. sociocultural: environment affects culture
  7. DSM-IV
    • 1. American Psychiatric Assocation's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
    • 2. system for classifying psychological disorders 
    • 3. describes disorders and preventance without presuming to explaining cause 
    • Axis I: major disorders 
    • Axis II: personality disorders 
    • Axis III: physical disorders that impact behavior 
    • Axis IV: assesses the lebels of psychological stress that person experiences of the first 3 axises 
    • Axis V: overall assessment of persons lebel of functioning
  8. problems diagnostic labels
    • facilitate preconcepions
    •  1. bias preception of people's past and present behavior 
    • 2. fairly estimating these individuals 
    • 3. labels serve as self-fulfilling prophecy
  9. Rosenham studies
    being labeled schiophrenic, their normal behavior were seen as psychophranic disorder
  10. anxiety disorders
    tension and nerviousness and can include panic attacks and desire to escape
  11. generalized anxiety disorders
    • 1. disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
    • 2. Freud: fre floating anxiety
  12. panic disorder (panic attacks)
    • 1. anxiety disorder, a minutes- long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or other frighetening sensations
    •  2. no reason sympathetic nervous system
  13. phobia
    anxiety disorder marked by a persistenet irrational fear and of a specific object or situation
  14. specific vs. social
    particular situation/thing fear of objectintense fear that causes embarassmanet
  15. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions
  16. post-traumatic stress disorder
    • 1. exposed to trauma, memories cause anxiety
    • 2. involve flashbacks and nightmares
    • 3. decrease ability to function
  17. explanations/causes for these disorders
    • 1. outward manifestion of internal conflict 
    • 2. cognitive perspective-unrealistic thinking 
    • 3. humanistic: gap between real self and i 
    • 4. behavior: fear conditioning
  18. mood disorders AKA effective disorders
    1. extremes inappropriate disturbance of balance
  19. dysthymic disorder
    1. low in spirit
  20. major depressive disorder AKA unipolar/clinical depression
    • 1. mood disorder in which for no apparant reason, experiences two or more weeks of feelings of worthlessness
    • 2. into deep unhappiness/suicidal thoughts/poor appetite, insomnia loss of interest in family and friends
  21. bipolar disorder
    1. mood disorder in which the person alternates bewteen the hopeless and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
  22. manic episode
    • 1. hyperactivity, wildly optimistic state
    • 2. flight of ideas, confused speech
  23. SAD
    • 1. seasonal affective disorder- people suffer depression during certain times of the year
    •  2. anger directed inward create intense moods
  24. explanation/causes (aaron beck)
    cognitive triad of depression-when depressed, neg views or self to neg. views of world to neg views of future come from learned helplessness
  25. somatoform disorders
    psychological issues expressed in bortly symptoms but no physical problem
  26. hypochondriasis
    physical complaint but unable to find cause away to get attention
  27. fictiitious disorder
    inflict injury or injust toxins to produce symptoms that they are complaining about (munchaussen disorder: person makes other people seem sick in order to get attention)
  28. conversion disorder
    • - Freud: hysteria
    • - trauma is changed to a symbolic, physical disfunction ex: hysteria, blindness/hysterical paralysis
  29. dissociative disorders
    person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory/change in identity
  30. amnesia
    • physical/organic: blunt force trauma anterograde: no how
    • retrograde: lose old psychogeic
    • amnesia: memory from trauma dissappear
  31. fugue
    AKA traveling amnesia
    person dissconnects from his/her life and changes identity and enviroment for a period of time (last rarely more than 1 month)
  32. dissociative identity disorder
    • 1. two or more distinct identities that alternately control the person's behavior
    • 2. original personality unaware of others
    • 3. no set #/random/personality can be the opp
  33. explanation/causes
    history of very upsetting/traumatic influences that cause these behaviors type of post traumatic disorder
  34. psychotic disorder
    1. loss of contact with/inability to recognize reality adolescents and early adulthood
  35. schizophrenia
    • 1. group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking symptoms:     1. pos: hallucinations, disorganized, deluded in their talk, inappropriate laughter, tears, or rage/presence "word salads"                   
    • 2. neg: toneless voices, mute and rigid bodies
  36. subtypes
    • 1. paranoid: preoccupation with delusions often with themes of persecution or grandiosity/suspiciousness
    • 2. disorganized: disorganized speech or behavior, flat or inappropriate affet
    • 3. catatonic: immobility for excessive, purposeless movement, parrotlike repeating of another's speech of movement
    •  4. undifferenated: many and varied symptoms 5. residual: withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions
  37. explanation/causes
    • 1. abnormal low brain activity; increase receptors for neutotransmitters dopamine 
    • 2. enlarged fluid fill area in brain 
    • 3. prenatal problems 
    • 4. marijuana use 
    • 5. enviormental factors from 5th chromosome causes: 
    • 1. develops from social inadiquery chronic/progress schizophrenia 
    • 2. acute/reactive schizophrenia 
    • 3. rapid in response to particular life stress
  38. personality disorders
    inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
  39. dependent
    relies too much on attention and health on others
  40. avoidant
    fearful sensitivity to rejection
  41. schiznoid
    eccentric behaviors like social disengagement
  42. paranoid
    person feels persecuted and distressed/ suspicious of others
  43. narcisstic
    exaggerate their own importance
  44. histrionic
    dramatic/impulsive behavior
  45. borderline
    • unstable identity, unstable relationships, and unstable emotions 
    • 2. manipulative/wrong-quick to anger
  46. anti-social
    • 1. exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward family and friends 
    • 2. view world as hostile and look out for themselves
    • 3. disregard rights/interests of people
  47. other psychological disorder of the DSM IV
    a. paraphilias: people sexually attractive to find sexually attractive to thing not seen as normal b. eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia, obesity c. substance abuse disorders: using sub. negatively change life d. developmental disorders: deficants from typical social development
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AP u8A