MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VII-1

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  1. What was the first oral antibiotic for MRSA and pseudomonas?
  2. What atypical activity does flouroquinolones have?
    • Chlamydia
    • Mycoplasma
    • Legionella
  3. Flouroquinolones are found where in nature?
    • Nowhere
    • They are purely synthetic
  4. The structure-activity relationship for flouroquinolones is not well understood (T/F)?
  5. What is the general spectrum of Flouroquinolones?
    Very broad
  6. What are Flouroquinolones poor at?
    Anerobes and Acinetobacter
  7. Ciprofloxacin is most active against what?
    Wild type gram negatives
  8. What Flouroquinolones are best against gram positives?
    Moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin
  9. Enhancements in flouroquinolones have been mostly toward what group of bacteria?
    Gram positives
  10. The development of flouroquinolones has been to increase potency against what bacteria?
    Gram positives

    • What is the potency of flouroquinolones?
    • Very very potent
  11. What level of resistance is found against flouroquinolones?
    Fairly high
  12. Why did resistance develop to flouroquinolones?
    Overuse of a ciprofloxacin, the most easy flouroquinolone to develop resistance to
  13. What are the clinical uses of Flouroquinolones?
    • UTI
    • RI
    • STDs
    • GI infections
    • SST
    • Osteomyeltis
  14. What is the mechanism of killing for Flouroquinolones?
    • Inhibit DNA synthesis
    • Greater affinity for bacterial DNA than human DNA
  15. Why do Flouroquinolones attack DNA synthesis of bacteria and not humans?
    Much greater affinity for bacterial DNA
  16. What investigational areas have flouroquinolones been used for?
    Cancer drugs
  17. Flouroquinolones are bactricidal and growth independant or dependant?
  18. Flouroquinolones are bactericidal or Bacteriostatic?
  19. What pathway do quinolones attack?
  20. What are the primary targets of the quinolones in Gram negative cells?
    DNA gyrase
  21. What are the primary target of quinolones in Gram positive bacteria is?
    • DNA gyrase
    • Topoisomerase IV
    • Topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase are primary targets for quinolones in what type of bacteria?
    • Gram positive
  22. DNA gyrase alone is a primary target for Flouroquinolone sin what type of bacteria?
    gram negative
  23. The primary target is always the same for all gram + and - bacteria?
    Depends on the bacteria and drug
  24. What conditions make for resistance to flouroquinolones?
    only one target in a cell (only DNA gyrase)
  25. What makes resistance more difficult in terms of flouroquinolones?
    Two targets (topoisomerase and gyrase)
  26. Stopping DNA gyrase causes what?
    • the DNA becomes too tight to be opened by helicase
    • Replication stops
    • The bacterium dies
  27. What is catenated?
    Two daughter strands are still attached
  28. What does Topoisomerase do?
    Separates the two daughter chromosomes of bacteria
  29. What was the first Flouroquinolone?
    Naladixic acid
  30. Which flourquinolone is actually not one?
    Naladixic acid
  31. Norfloxacin has what that increase activity?
    Flourine and extra ring
  32. What antibiotic has a flourine and an ring (compared to Naladixic acid)?
  33. What came out of Norfloxacin?
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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VII-1
MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VII-1
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