MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VI-2

  1. What kinds of resistance can occur against inhibitors of protein synthesis?
    • Ribosomal changes
    • Reduced drug accumulation
    • Modifying enzymes
  2. What inhibitors of protein synthesis can be deterred with modifying enzymes?
    Chloramphenicl and Macrolides
  3. What is the usual administration for tetracyclines?
  4. What is the general spectrum for tetracycline?
  5. What are important organisms which Tetracycline are active against?
    • Mycoplasma
    • Rickettsia
    • Chlamydia
  6. What disease are Tetracyclines used to treat?
    syphilis in penicillin-allergic patients
  7. Syphilis in penicillin allergic patients is treated with what group of antibiotics?
  8. What physical feature do Tetracyclines have?
    Four rings structures
  9. What is the length of time that Tetracycline act?
    Short acting
  10. What way can tetracycline be administered?
    PO, IM and IV
  11. What are the long acting Tetracyclines?
    • Doxycycline
    • Minocycline
  12. Minocyclin and Doxycycline are in what group of Tetracyclines?
    Long acting
  13. What is the mechanism of action for Tetracycline?
    • They inhibit protein synthesis
    • Block tRNA to A-site
  14. What are problems with tetracyclines?
    • it stunts skeletal development in the fetus
    • Causes tooth staining
    • May accelerate sunburn
  15. Why do you not give tetracyclines to pregnant women?
    abnormal bone development
  16. What group of drugs may cause accelerated sunburn, stunted bone growth and stained teeth?
  17. Who do you never give tetracyclines to?
    Pregnant women
  18. What happens if you give newborn babies tetracyclines?
    Tooth staining and brown bones
  19. What age is safe for Tetracycline use?
    Post puberty
  20. What antibiotic should you not give until after puberty?
  21. What macrolides are available?
    • Erythromycin
    • Clarithromycin
    • Azithromycin
  22. Clarithromycin, Azithromycin and Erthyromycin all belong to what group?
    • Macrolides
    • All Macrolides can be give n IV and PO except________________which is only given PO.
    • Clarithromycin
  23. What are Macrolides used for?
    Streptococcal Respiratory infections in penicillin allergic patients
  24. What inhibitor of protein synthesis is used to treat streptococcal respiratory infections in penicillin allergic patients?
  25. Are macrolides drugs used to treat cell wall deficient bacteria?
  26. What bacteria can be treated with Macrolides (as discussed in class)?
    • Mycoplasma
    • Legionella
    • Less severe Stphylococcal infections
    • Strep
  27. What are the side effects of Macrolides?
    Generally well tolerated and safe
  28. What is the mechanism of action for Erythromycin?
    • Blocks polypeptide elongation
  29. What should you not use in combination with a bacteriostatic drug?
    A growth dependant drug (penicillin/cephalosporin)
  30. Bacteriostatic drugs can antagonize what other type of drugs?
  31. What macrolide blocks polypeptide elongation?
  32. What is the general antibiotic effect of Erythromycin?
  33. What are the safest Erythromycins available?
    Esters and Sterate salts
  34. What Protein synthesis inhibitor is best used in the ester and sterate salt forms?
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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VI-2
MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VI-2