Biology Vocab: Nervous and Endocrine Systems

  1. Central Nervous System
    • brain and spinal cord
    • sorts sensory information
    • generates thought and emotions
    • forms and stores memories
    • stimulates muscle contractions
    • stimulates glandular secretions
  2. Peripheral Nervous System
    • connects sensory receptors, muscles, and glads to the CNS
    • Afferent Neurons (sensory)
    • Efferent Neurons (motor)
  3. Afferent Neurons (Sensory)
    conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors toward the CNS
  4. Efferent Neurons (Motor)
    conduct nerve impulses away from the CNS to muscles and glands
  5. Autonomic Nervous System
    • sensory neurons from viscera to CNS
    • efferent neurons to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
    • unconscious control
    • two divisions: sympathetic division-stimulatory effect (on), parasympathetic division-inhibitory effect (off)
  6. Neuron
    nerve cell
  7. Dendrite
    detects signals (efferent)
  8. Cell Body
    has nucleus
  9. Axon
    • long, thin, cylindrical processes
    • may be mylinated (insulated)
  10. Synapse
    • send message to the next cell
    • release neurotransmitters to carry signal to the next nerve
  11. Neuroglia
    • cells to nurture neurons
    • types of neuroglia found in the CNs: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal
  12. Astrocytes
    • star-shaped cells
    • form a blood brain barrier, link neurons and blood vessels
  13. Oligodendricytes
    • small cells
    • support neurons and make a lipid and protein covering (myelin sheath) in the CNS
  14. White Matter
    myelinated axons
  15. Gray Matter
    nerve cell bodies, dendrites, ganglia, and axon terminals
  16. Actions Potential
    • resting potential (Na+ out and K+ in)
    • stimulus reaches threshold potential
    • Na+ channels open; K+ channels still closed
    • Na+ channels close; K+ channels open
    • undershoot: K+ channels close slowly
  17. Reflex Arc
    • fast, predictable, automatic responses
    • sensory neuron→interneuron→motor neuron
  18. Cerebrum
    most of the cranium with right and left hemispheres
  19. Cerebellum
    the posterier-inferior portion of the brain
  20. Brain Stem
    the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain
  21. Diencephalon
    thalamus and hypothalamus
  22. Meninges
    • brain protection
    • dura mater: outer layer
    • arachnoid mater: middle layer
    • dia mater: inner layer
  23. Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • nourishes and protects brain and spinal cord
    • continuouly circulated by cilia
  24. Front Lobe
    • motor areas voluntary movement
    • carry on high level intellectual processing
  25. Parietal Lobe
    • sensory areas interpret sensations like touch , pressure, and pain
    • understanding speech
  26. Temporal Lobe
    • hearing and balance
    • interpret sensory experience
  27. Occipital Lobe
    • visual processing an interpretation
    • visual images with sensory experience
  28. Gyrus (Gyri)
    ridges on brian
  29. Sulcus (Sulci)
    grooves  in brain
  30. Medulla Oblongata
    • breathing
    • heart rate
    • coughing, vomiting, swallowing, and hiccuping
  31. Pons
    • lies superior to the medulla oblongata
    • helps control respiration
  32. Midbrain
    • superior to the pons
    • connects the brain stem to the diencephalon
  33. Thalamus
    • 80% of the diencephalon
    • principle relay station between the various sections of the brain
  34. Hypothalamus
    • small portion located below the thalamus
    • the main regulator of homeostasis
    • thirst, hunger, satiety (feeling satisfied)
  35. Alzheimer's Disease
    • 11% of population
    • dementia due to atrophy of neurons of the frontal and occipital lobes
  36. Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS of Lou Gehrig's Disease)
    • degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, medulla, and cortex
    • no known cure
  37. Bacterial Meningitis
    • infection of the meninges
    • symptoms: severe headaches, fever and even death
    • more common in college students
  38. Cerebral Palsy
    • loos of muscle control
    • damage to the motor areas of the brain during fetal development, during birth and during infancy
  39. Epilepsy
    • short, recurrent, periodic, neuronal malfunction
    • seizures-involuntary skeletal muscles contractions
  40. Multiple Sclerosis
    • the progressive destrucion of the myelin sheaths of neurons in the CNS
    • "short circuits" nerve transmission
    • cause is unknown, no cure
  41. Parkinson's Disease
    • over 60, loss of nerve function
    • tremors (shaking), muscle weakness, and a peculiar gait
  42. Cerebral Vascular Accident (Stroke)
    • slurred speech, loss of or blurred vision
    • Ischemic CVA: due to lack of blood supply
    • Hemorrhagic CVA: due to the rupture of a blood vessel
  43. Fibrous Tunic
    • thick, outermost layer of the eyeball
    • sclera: the posterior "white" portion
    • cornea: the anterior transparent portion of the fibrous tunic
  44. Vascular Tunic
    • supplies blood to the eye
    • choroid: posterior, thin, dark brown membrane lines the internal sclera
    • ciliary body: anterior, thick portion of smooth muscle fibers
    • iris
    • lens
  45. Iris
    contraction of smooth muscle to dilate or constrict pupil
  46. Lens
    alteration of the shape of the lens
  47. Nervous Tunic
    • inner layer of eye
    • retina: a thin fragile layer of neurons and photorecptors
    • optic nerve: axons and ganglion cells to transmit images to the occipital lobe
  48. Rods
    eleongated cylindrical dendrites that are sensitive to light
  49. Cones
    color sensitive
  50. Pituitary Gland
    • pituitary gland is found near the diencephalon of the brain
    • often called the master gland because it secretes hormones that control other endocrine glands
    • hGH, TSH, ACTH,
  51. Thyroid Gland
    • located just below the larynx with its lobes lying on either side of the trachea
    • secretes thyroxine
  52. Cortisol
    • a family of stress hormones
    • made in adrenal glands 
    • peaks shorty before dawn
  53. Adrenal Medulla
    • inner region of the adrenal glands
    • two sets of hormone producing cells
    • under the control of the ANS
  54. Pancreas
    • a flattened oblong organ located just posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach
    • is both an endocrine and exocrine gland
  55. Glucagon
    glucose release
  56. Insulin
    absorbing glucose
  57. Diabetes Mellitus
    a group of disorders that lease to an elevation of blood glucose (hyperglycoma)
Card Set
Biology Vocab: Nervous and Endocrine Systems
bio vocab