1. The Other peace treaties
    • a.      other ones made with other Central Powers redrew map of eastern Europe
    •                                                               i.      many of these ratified what the war had already accomplished
    •                                                             ii.      empires that had controlled E. Europe destroyed or weakened and new states appeared
  2. Germans and Russians
    • a.      Germans and Russians lost a lot of territory and Austro-Hungarian Empire disappeared altogether
    •                                                               i.      new nation states, such as Estonia. Ausria, Finland, etc.
    • b.      Territorial arrangements also in the Balkans as Romania gained more land and Serbia formed new state of Yugoslavia
  3. Parish Peace Conference
    a.      Although the Paris Peace Conference was supposedly guided by the principle of self-determination, the mixture of people made it impossible to draw boundaries along neat ethnic lines
  4. Compromises
    •                                                               i.      compromises made
    • 1.      as a result of compromises, virtually every eastern European state was left with a minorities problem that could lead to future conflicts.
    • a.      Germans in Poland; Hungarians, Poles, and Germans in Czechoslovakia; and Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Macedonians, and Albanians in Yugoslavia became sources of later conflict
  5. Centuries old Ottomans
    • a.      centuries-old Ottoman Empire was dismembered by peace settlement after war
    •                                                               i.      to gain Arab support against Ottomans during war, Allies promised to grant their independence
    • 1.      but, imperialism led France to take Lebanon and Syria, and Britain to take Iraq and Palestine
    • a.      these places were called mandates
  6. Wilson oposed
    • a.      Since Wilson opposed annexation of colonial territories by Allies, the peace settlement created a system of mandates whereby a nation officially administered a territory on behalf of the League of Nations
    •                                                               i.      didn’t hide the fact that the principle of national self-determination at the Paris Peace Conference was for Europeans
  7. Peace Settlement
    • a.      Peace settlement negotiated at Paris was under attack, but Central Powers and others who felt that the peacemakers were shortsighted
    •                                                               i.      some people agreed that the settlement was the best that could be achieved under the circumstances
  8. self-determination
    • 1.      they believed that self-determination served well as central organizing principle, and the establishment of the League of Naitons gave some hope that future conflicts could be resolved peacefully
    • 2.      Within 20 years, Europe weoudl again fight due to lack of enforcement
  9. Successful enforcement
    • a.      Sucessful enforcement of peace necessitated active involvement of its principal architects, especially in helping a new German state develop a peaceful and democratic republic
    •                                                               i.      the failure of the US Senate to ratify the Treaty of Versailles meant that US never joined League of Nations
  10. Senate
    •                                                               i.      Senate also rejected Wilson’s defensive alliance with British and French
    • 1.      by end of 1919, the US was pursuing policies intended to limit its direct involvement in future European ears
  11. retreat
    • a.      This retreat had dire consequences
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      American withdrawal led Brits to withdraw and led France to stand alone, facing Germany as enemy
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