History Terms

  1. humanism
    Renaissance movement that focused on worldly instead of religious subjects
  2. Pico della Mirandola
    wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man
  3. Medici/ Sforza
    • wealthy patron families
    • Sforza- Milan
    • Medici- Florence
  4. Martin Luther
    • born in Germany
    • searched Scriptures for washing away sins and proving worthiness
    • realized you just had to believe
    • excommunicated by Pope Leo X
    • called by Charles V to recant his words
    • protected by Frederick the Elector
    • teachings led to Peasant's Revolt but he suppressed it
  5. Lutheranism
    • justification by faith alone (sola fide)
    • authority rests only in Bible (sola scriptura)
    • everyone who believed had personal communication with God
    • church is made up of all believers
    • only sacraments needed were baptism and eucharist
    • consubstantiation (bread and wine undergo spiritual not physical change)church focused on sermon and uses German
  6. Catholicism
    • justification comes from faith/good works and sacraments
    • authority comes from Bible, church teachings, and papal and conciliar doctrine
    • clergy needed to communicate with God
    • church is only clergy
    • need 7 sacraments
    • transubstantiation (bread and wine actually physically change)
    • church services focused on rituals and use Latin
  7. Augsberg Confession
    Luther's beliefs he set up
  8. priesthood of all believers
    everyone had personal relationship with God
  9. John Knox
    • studied under Calvin
    • introduced Presbyterian- emphasis on preaching and priests
  10. Inquisition
    Pope Paul III rooted out all heretics
  11. Machiavelli
    • wrote the Prince
    • not concerned with morals only if its politically effective
    • rulers must seem to be honest, merciful, and trustworthy
  12. Indulgences
    pardon people paid for to erase sins and go to heaven instead of purgatory
  13. Henry VIII
    • wanted to divorce current wife for Anne Boleyn
    • needed an annulment but Pope said no b/c:
    • depended on HRE for protection of papal states who was Catherine's nephew
    • he would be admitting papacy was wrong which would give Luther an advantage
  14. Henry VIII's Acts as a result of Pope's denial of annulment
  15. Act of Restraint of Appeals = established crown at highest legal authority in land
    • Act of Submission of Clergy = required clergy to submit to king and prevented church law without the king’s approval
    • Act of Supremacy = king is head of English Church (Anglican Church); monarchy controlled church in doctrine appointments and revenue
  16. Individualism
    • strongest motif for artists in the Renaissance
    • thirst for fame
  17. Index
    books Catholics weren't allowed to read
  18. Castiglione
    • wrote the Courtier
    • about ideal man and woman
  19. l'uomo universale
    the idea of the perfect man
  20. Christian humanism
    • northern humanists stressed biblical and early Christian themes
    • man is basically good and capable of redemption through education
    • to change society must change individuals who make up society
    • stressed simple religion based on teachings of Jesus that had been corrupted by formality and rituals of the Church
  21. Johann Tetzel
    monk who began selling indulgences in Germany
  22. Peace of Augsburg
    • princes could choose what religion for his domain
    • people had to convert to what prince chose or go
  23. Counter Reformation
    • Catholicism spread and became more like old Catholicism
    • Protestant tide was slowed down
    • Jesuits were founded
    • Index and Inquisition formed
  24. Council of Trent
    • made scripture and tradition equal
    • only church interprets scripture
    • faith and works
    • all 7 sacraments
    • transubstantiation
    • celibacy
    • purgatory and indulgences
    • established theological seminaries; priests had to exhibit genuine calling to office
  25. Petrarch
    • father of humanism
    • obsession with recovering texts
    • believed that only by restoring mastery of spoken and written language could be truly replicate the virtuous life
    • credited with “inventing” modern concept of individual
  26. Patron
    person who provides financial support for the arts
  27. Erasmus
    • was most prominent Christian humanist
    • major work is The Praise of Folly
    • themes in his works:
    • education is means to reform
    • the philosophy of Christ
    • desire for reform within the Church was quickly overwhelmed by passion of Reformation; strongly disagreed with Luther and Protestant reformers
  28. Johannes Gutenberg
    • invented movable printing press
    • increased literacy
    • more propaganda
    • allowed unification easily
    • lessened dependence on clergy
    • allowed info to spread quickly
  29. 95 Theses
    95 Things Luther found wrong/ corrupt with the church
  30. John Calvin
    • influenced by Luther’s writings in Geneva, Switzerland = wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion
    • focused primarily on absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and total weakness of humanity
    • main belief was predestination (no free will; people can’t work to achieve salvation, God has already decided who is to be and who will not)
    • 3 tests to indicate possible salvation
    • 1)open profession of faith
    • 2)decent and godly life
    • 3)participation in baptism and communion
    • predestination served as energizing force allowing person to undergo hardships
  31. Loyola/ Jesuits
    • Society of Jesus
    • founded by Ignatius Loyola
    • specifically formed to stop spread of Protestant reforms
    • absolute obedience to Pope
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History Terms
History Final Exam