What part of the federal government regulates large animals?
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
- Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) - a part of USDA
- Veterinary Services (VS) - a part of APHIS
What part of the state government regulates large animals?
- Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (VDACS)
- Division of Animal Industry Services - a part of VDACS
What part of the government regulates health/shipping certificates?
Who is allowed to sign health and shipping certificates?
a federally accredited veterinarian (not every veterinarian is accredited)
For forms to be submitted, what does the animal need to have?
permanent individual identification
What are some different types of permanent identification?
- metal ear tag
- ear notching
What are the main diseases that are regulated by the government?
- equine infectious anemia
Who do we report reportable diseases to?
Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services - the state vet
What is the etiology of brucellosis?
- Brucella spp. bacteria
- Brucella abortis in cattle is the most common
Which animals are susceptible to brucellosis?
Is brucellosis zoonotic?
yes, causes undulant fever or Malta fever in humans
Is the United States brucellosis free?
yes, which means there have not been any reported cases within 1 year in domestic cattle
Which state will occasionally have a case of brucellosis?
What has eliminated brucellosis and when did this happen?
- Cooperative State-Federal Eradication program
What organ system does brucellosis target?
What are the clinical signs in females and male with brucellosis?
- females: abortions, infertility, weak calves, retained placenta, poor milk production
- males: orchitis, epididymitis
- in both: weight loss, occasionally arthritis
How is brucellosis transmitted?
- direct contact with infected animals or contaminated food - not very aerosolized
- shed in the reproductive secretions and in milk and urine
- by sexual contact or if an animal sniffs another animals rear end that has the disease
How can humans get brucellosis?
- ingesting unpasteurized milk
- through open wounds by not wearing OB gloves
How do we diagnose brucellosis?
- milk ring test (not really done anymore)
- antibody titers in serum
- culture of affected tissues to confirm a positive antibody titer test
How do we prevent the spread of brucellosis?
- surveillance tests - test and slaughter
How do we prevent humans from getting brucellosis?
- exercise caution when coming into contact with potentially infected tissues
- wear OB sleeves and don't consume unpasteurized dairy products
Which cattle do we vaccinate for brucellosis and why?
- replacement heifers 4 - 12 months of age (best to do it 4 - 6 months of age)
- want to vaccinate prebreeding to create an immune response before breeding
Which vaccine do we use for brucellosis?
RB51 because it is a live vaccine, has less reactions
What will happen if we vaccinate an intact male for brucellosis?
it will cause orchitis and epididymitis because it is a live vaccine
What are ways to identify a cow that has been vaccinated for brucellosis?
- must have a bangs tattoo in the right ear and then have one of the following...
- orange numbered metal tag for initial vaccinates
- silver metal tags
- individual tattoo
- individual brand
What is the etiology of tuberculosis?
- Mycobacterium spp. bacteria
- M. bovis, M. avium, M. tuberculosis are the most common
Which animals are susceptible to M. bovis, M. avium, M. tuberculosis?
- M. bovis: all warm blooded vertebrates
- M. avium: all birds, cattle, pigs
- M. tuberculosis: primarily humans but also cattle, pigs and dogs
What eliminated TB from the United States in the livestock population and when did this happen?
- Cooperative State-Federal Eradication program
Do we still see TB in this country?
- as of December 2007 - 47 states are considered TB free (no confirmed cases in the last 5 years)
- NM, MI, MN have sporadic positive cases
What organ systems does TB target?
respiratory and lymphatic
What are the clinical signs of TB?
none to subtle (weight loss, poor doers, etc) to more severe (coughing, swollen lymph nodes, etc)
How is TB transmitted?
- respiratory secretions primarily
- but can also get through milk
- therefore, inhalation or ingestion by other animals including humans
How do we diagnose TB?
- intradermal tuberculin test - inject 0.1 ml of tuberculin int he caudal tail fold, recheck for reaction in 72 hours (look for knots)
- culture and identification to confirm
How do we prevent TB?
- maintain closed herds or obtain animals from TB free herds
- surveillance testing - test and slaughter
- no vaccine available
How can we prevent TB in humans?
use common sense and don't consume unpasteurized dairy products
What is the etiology of equine infectious anemia?
equine infectious anemia virus, a lentivirus similar to HIV but not zoonotic
Which species are susceptible to equine infectious anemia?
members of the equidae family
When was equine infectious anemia first documented in the US?
How many cases of equine infectious anemia were documented in the US in 2007? How many were in virginia?
- 120 cases
- none in virginia
How much do horse owners spend a year nationwide for routine testing?
What organ system does equine infectious anemia affect?
What are the clinical signs for equine infectious anemia?
- acute stage: ranging from just a mild short lived fever to severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, liver failure, and DIC
- chronic stage: periodtic fever, weight loss, lethargy, anemia, thrombocytopenia
- unapparent carriers: quite common and necessitates routine testing of all equines
How is equine infectious anemia transmitted?
blood from horse to horse: biting arthropods such as horse flies, deer flies, and mosquites, use of needles on multiple animals, blood transfusions, transplacental
How do we diagnose equine infectious anemia?
- agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test is considered the gold standard and the true Coggins test - get results in about 3 days
- ELISA test - get results in 1 day, but more expensive
How do we prevent equine infectious anemia?
- no vaccine available
- vector control and utilize common sense with clinical practice (do use the same needle on multiple horses)
What should happen to horses that test positive for equine infectious anemia?
euthanized or be quarantined in an arthropod proof stall for the rest of its life
What is the etiology for pseudorabies?
pseudorabies virus (PRV), a herpes virus
What species are susceptible to pseudorabies?
primarily swine but occasionally cattle, horses, dogs, cats, sheep, goats, and some wild animals
Is pseudorabies zoonotic?
What organ systems do pseudorabies affect?
- CNS in young piglets
- respiratory in nursery pigs
- reproductive in sow
What are the clinical signs of pseudorabies?
- depends on the individual affected
- tremors, ataxia, paddling, "mad itch:
- fever and consistent with pneumonia
- abortions, stillbirths
How is pseudorabies transmitted?
- direct contact, fomites, aerosolization
- makes biosecurity in swine operations crucial
- latent infections exist
Are pseudorabies contagious?
How do we diagnose pseudorabies?
- many tests available including virus isolation and serologic tests
- an ELISA or LA test is used most often to screen large numbers of animals but any positive results are confirmed with other tests due to the potential for false positives
Where do we collect the blood for testing a pig for pseudorabies and why?
requires a relatively large volume of blood necessitating the use of the anterior vena cava
How do we prevent pseudorabies?
- routine testing - test and slaughter
- biosecurity - all pigs in and all pigs slaughtered at the same time, then a full sterilization of the facility before more pigs come in
- vaccine does exist but is regulated in it's use depending on current status of herd and state
How do we treat all these different diseases?
What are health and shipping certificates required for?
What are the different types of health and shipping certificates?
- small animals
- domestic livestock (other than equine) and bison
What do we do if an animal is traveling international?
research the requirements for that country