PSY 241 Lecture 17

  1. Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
    • Type of dementia characterized by progressive neurological degeneration and profound deterioration of mental functioning
    • Affects 4.5 million in US; 35.6 million worldwide
    • By 2050: 14.3 million in US; 115.4 million worldwide
  2. Age onset for AD
    • 65 and up and risk increases with age
    • can develop before 60
  3. Biological Marker of AD
    • Plaques (beta amyloid protein) that cluster among axon terminals (outside cell) above normal levels
    • Interferes with neural communication
    • Associated with cell death
    • Beta amyloid protein is part of a larger molecule (amyloid precursor protein - APP) that is present in the cell membrane, but enzymes break up APP to make beta-amyloid protein
  4. Ī² secretase
    • enzyme that cuts and determines how long the beta-amyloid protein is
    • Either 40 (short) or 42 (long) amino acids
  5. In normal brains, _________ of beta-amyloid proteins are the shorts form
  6. In AD brains, the long form of beta-amyloid rises to as much as _____
  7. Pittsburgh Compoung B (PIB) PET scan
    recognizes beta amyloid protein
  8. Neurofibrillary tangles
    • Accumulation of neurofribrillary tangles (Tau protein)
    • Tau protein is part of the microtubule system in axons
  9. Affected area of the brain in AD
    • Hippocampus
    • Entorhinal cortex
    • Neocortex
    • Locus coeruleus
    • Raphe neuclei
    • Shrinkage of the brain
  10. Basal Forebrain
    cells that synthesize acetylcholine
  11. What happens to acetylcholine in AD?
    • Beta-amyloid protein binds to receptor on Acetylcholine neurons and initiates cell death
    • Cell death correlated with cognitive impairment
  12. Risk factors of AD
    • Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Diabetes
    • Stroke
    • Heart disease

    • women's health
    • loss of ovarian hormones (estrogen and progesterone) during menopause is thought to be related)

    • smoking
    • heavy smokingĀ 
    • nicotine binds to acetylcholine receptors

    • mitochondrial dysfunction
    • damage releases free radicals
  13. Early onset AD
    associated with a mutation on chromosomes 21, 14, or 1
  14. Late onset AD
    associated with gene on chromosome 19
  15. Treatment for AD
    • Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
    • Donepezil (aricept)
    • Rivastigmine (exelon)
    • Galantamine (razadyne)
    • Tacrine (cognex)

    • NMDA antagonist used (glutamate binds to NMDA receptor)
    • Memantine (Namenda)
  16. Dimebon
    Remove accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide from the brain by taking advantage of the immune system
  17. Bapineuzumbab
    Inhibits cell death by inhibiting NMDA receptors and enhancing mitochontrial function and enhances acetylcholine by inhibiting cholinesterase
Card Set
PSY 241 Lecture 17
Learning and Memory 4 arturo zavala psychobiology