plants and people final

  1. Some common traits to the domestication of grasses
    • height (same height, short,strong stature)
    • Controlling lodging
    • Inhibit shattering 
    • synchrony of tiller formation
    • selection for elimination of branching
    • easy-threshing
  2. the significance of synchronizing tiller formation?
    synchrony of tiller formation allows seeds to grow and mature around the same time
  3. significance for short stature?
    • eliminates problem of lodging ESPECIALLY in the wet lands
    • lodging wrecks crops
    • intense selection for dwarf varieties and stlk strength increased cultivation
  4. Significance to select reducing Shattering?
    • evolutionarily, inflorescences shattered easily to spread seeds once plant matured 
    • mutations allows a selection for non-shattering plants which increased yields from collecting
  5. Significance of selecting for easy-threshing?
    • threshing used to have to be done by hand
    • domestication made grains loosely enclosed by bracts allowing easy removal
  6. significance of symbiosis of legumes and Rhizobium bacteria?
    • bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into the plant tissues as ammonia
    • increase growth 
    • crop rotation with legumes replenish soil
  7. significance of legume nutrition
    • legumes are rich in proteins (but lack in sulfur-rich amino acids)
    • have stachylose
  8. what is stachylose? What does it do?
    • a sugar molecule from legumes
    • in the intestines, gut bacteria digest it and produce CO2 and H2S
  9. how has the quality of the seed in cereals and grains changed since domestication?
    • domestication caused polypliodity
    • polyploidity brought an increase of gluten content (gluten protein)
  10. The first cereal domesticated?
  11. 2 types of barley spikelets.
    2 row and 6 row
  12. Some grains that are not cereals
    • Buckwheat 
    • Quinoa
  13. how do plants acquire nitrogen?
    nitrates or ammonia in the soil
  14. How does Rhizobium help plants?
    Rhizobium (and allies) fix atmospheric nitrogen gas inside plant tissues, releasing ammonia for the plant to use
  15. the most abundant legume crop?
  16. soybean significance ?
    Most abundant legume crop

    Balanced Amino Acids

    Rich in Protein

    Huge array of foodstuffs

    Filler in processed (and sliced!) meats
  17. descrive the stem structure differences between a monocot and a dicot
    • a monocot has disordered stem structure
    • a dicot has concentrically organized vascular bundles
  18. fiber cells are ____to the phloem
  19. the xylem is ___to the phloem
  20. the pith is located in the ____ of the stem
    middle of dicots
  21. this plant structure transports water and soluble mineral nutrients
  22. 2 ways to keep the xylem flowing
    • Transpirational pull
    • Root pressure (osmosis)
  23. how is capillary action achieved in the xylem?
    movement of water upwards is created by adhesion of water molecules and the xylem wall, the action provides a force that establishes equilibrium with gravity and transpiration
  24. the function of the phloem
    carries organic nutrients
Card Set
plants and people final
plants and people final