PSY 241 Lecture 13

  1. Ventrolateral peroptic area and Median preoptic area
    • Fire during NREM sleep and to some degree in REM
    • Median - just before NREM (induce)
    • Ventrolateral - during NREM sleep (maintain)
    • Lesion these area and you get reduced sleep, and sleep that does occur is light and fragmented
    • Use GABA as their neurotransmitter and project to the wakefulness and arousal areas
    • Drugs that treat insomnia work by enhancing GABA
  2. Acetylcholine
    • Promote REM sleep
    • Neurons in laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus
    • Drugs that enhance acetylcholine elicit intense and long-lasting REM sleep
    • Drugs that block acetylcholine reduce the duration of REM sleep
  3. Monoamines
    Loss of norepinephrine and serotonin intervention of motor neurons produces the atonia (lack of stimulation) in the muscles seen during REM sleep
  4. GABA
    • In the sublaterodorsal nucleus
    • Active during stage
    • Produces muscle atonia (lack of stimulation in muscles)
    • Lesions to the sublaterodorsal nucleus reduce atonia and REM sleep
  5. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)
    • Mixed with Orexin neurons of leteral hypothalamus are neurons that produce MCH and GABA
    • Inhibitory effect like Orexin
    • Neurons fire at high rate during REM and inactive during wakefulness
    • MCH antagonists (block MCH) decrease REM
    • Inhibit arousal and wakefulness
  6. Adenosine
    • Byproduct of ATP breakdown
    • High cellular activity - lot of ATP - high levels of Adenosine
    • Reduce activity of wake-promoting neurons
    • Caffeine, blocks adenosine, promots wakefulness
    • Activity of brain
  7. Cytokines
    • Intracellular signaling peptides releasing by immune cells, neurons, and astrocytes
    • Include interleukin-1 Beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (promote sleep)
    • Body fights immune system
  8. Process model of Sleep
    • Process S - sleep pressure
    • Process C - sleep/wake circadian drive
    • S High and C Low = Sleep
  9. Functions of sleep
    • Restoration
    • Learning and Memory
    • Evolutionary
  10. Restorative Function: 
    Growth hormones during __________
    Protein synthesis during ___________
    Neurotransmitter systems are ___________
    • Growth hormones during deep sleep
    • Protein synthesis during REM Sleep
    • Neurotransmitter systems are replenished
  11. Sleep deprivation results in:
    • Impaired cognitive ability and inability to recognize impairment
    • Depression
    • Irritability
    • Decreases alertness
    • Prolonged sleep deprivation also results in dizziness, tremors, and hallucinations
  12. Depriving people of non-REM sleep results in _____________________________________________________________
    Depriving people of non-REM sleep results in impairments of verbal learning memorizing a list of words
  13. Depriving people of REM sleep results in __________________________________
    Depriving people of REM sleep results in impairment of learned motor skills
  14. _______ is important for memory storage or consolidation
    REM is important for memory storage or consolidation
  15. _______________ reduce REM sleep and people do not have learning or memory problems
    Antidepressants reduce REM sleep and people do not have learning or memory problems
  16. Activation-Synthesis
    Dreams represent the brain's effort to make sense of spare and distorted information
  17. Wake people during NonREM sleep have ___________ emotions
    Wake people during REM sleep have ___________ emotions
    • Wake people during NonREM sleep have positive emotions
    • Wake people during REM sleep have negative emotions
  18. _____________ is very active during REM sleep - handles negative emotions
    Amygdala is very active during REM sleep - handles negative emotions
  19. ___________________ decrease REM sleep
    Antidepressants decrease REM sleep
  20. Insomnia
    • Inadequate sleep
    • Taking a long time to fall asleep
    • Frequent waking during the night
    • Awakening before the desired time

    • Increase anxiety and depression
    • Drug Aids: Ambien, Lunesta, Sonata, Halcion, Rozerum (GABA A agonist)
  21. Sleep Apnea
    Impaired ability to breathe while sleeping due to obstruction of respiratory passages by muscle spasms or lack of muscle tone or by CS failing to initiate breathing

    • Due to:
    • Genetics
    • Old age due to deterioration of brain mechanisms that regulate breathing
    • Obesity
  22. Narcolepsy
    Frequent periods of sleepiness during the day

    • 4 main symptoms:
    • Gradual/sudden attacks of sudden sleepiness during the day
    • Cataplexy - lack of muscle tone or muscle weakness while person remains awake
    • Triggered by strong emotions
    • Sleep paralysis - an inability to move while falling asleep or waking up
    • Hypnagogic hallucinations - dreamlike experiences that the person has trouble distinguishing from reality

    • Problem with Orexin neurotransmission
    • Reduced CSF levels of orexin

    Ritalin - increase dopamine and norepinephrine
  23. Periodic limb movement disorder
    • Repeated involuntary movement of legs and arms
    • Leg kicks ever 20-30 seconds for minutes, hours, mostly during NonREM sleep
    • Tranquilizers help suppress movement
  24. REM Behavior Disorder
    • More vigorously during REM periods
    • Acting out dreams
    • Associated with older individuals with brain diseases (ex: Parkinson's Disease)
    • Damage of cells in Pons that control large muscle movements via spinal cord
  25. Night Terrors
    • Intense anxiety from which a person awakens screaming in terror
    • More common in children
    • During non-REM sleep
  26. Sleep talking
    • Common and harmless
    • During REM and non-REM
  27. Sleepwalking
    • Runs in families and occurs in children
    • Can be due to sleep deprivation or drugs like alcohol
    • Occurs during stage 3 (slow wave sleep)
    • Waking them is NOT dangerous
Card Set
PSY 241 Lecture 13
sleep 2 arturo zavala psychobiology