Cardiovascular system part 2

  1. White blood cells
    they have nuclei and do not contain hemoglobin
  2. Granular leukocytes
    A type of white blood cell that contains chemical filled cytoplasmic granules (vesicles) that are made visible by staining.  3 types all together
  3. eosinophil
    a type of granular leukocyte. large and uniform granules.  They stain red orange.  The granules do not cover the nucleus which has two lobes connected by a thick strand of chromatin
  4. Basophil
    a type of granular leukocyte. has round, variable sized granules.  They stain blue purple. The granules commonly obscure the nucleus which has two lobes
  5. neutrophil
    a type of granular leukocyte. the granules are smaller and evenly distributed and pale lilac in colour.  The nucleus has two to five lobes connected by very thin strands of chromatin
  6. Agranular leukocytes
    A type of white blood cell.  they posses cytoplasmic granules. However, they are not visible under a light microscope. two types
  7. lymphocyte
    a type of agranular leukocyte.  The nucleus is round or slightly indented and stains darkly. The cytoplasm stains sky blue and a rim forms around the nucleus.  They have diagnostic significance in acute viral infections and in some immunodeficiency diseases.
  8. monocyte
    a type of agranular leukocyte.  The nucleus is kidney shaped or horseshoe shaped and the cytoplasm is blue-gray and has a foaming appearance.  The blood transports monocytes from the blood into the tissues, where they enlarge and differentiate into macrophages
  9. fixed macrophages
    they reside in a particular tissue
  10. wandering macrophages
    roam the tissues and gather at sites of infection or inflammation
  11. major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens
    white blood cells and all other nucleated cells n the body have these proteins protruding from their plasma membranes into the extracellular fluid. These "cell identity markers" are unique for each person
  12. leukocytosis
    an increase in the number of WBCs above 10,000/ul is a normal protective response to stressors such as invading microbes, strenuous exercise, surgery
  13. leukopenia
    an abnormally low level of white blood cells.  It is never beneficial and may be caused by radiation, shock and certain chemotherapies
  14. emigration
    the process by which WBCs leave the bloodstream.  They roll along the endothelium, stick to it, and then squeeze between endothelial cells
  15. phagocytosis
    ingestion of bacteria and disposal of dead matter
  16. chemotaxis
    the release of several different chemicals by microbes and inflamed tissues to attract phagocytes
  17. differential white blood cell count
    a count of each of five types of white blood cells to detect infection or inflammation, determine the effects of possible poisoning by chemicals or drugs, monitor blood disorders and the effect of chemotherapy, or detect allergic reactions or parasitic infections
  18. Thrombopoietin
    this hormone influences the myeloid stem cells to develop into megakaryocyte-colony forming cells that in turn develop into precursor cells called megakaryoblasts
  19. platelet
    fragments of megakaryoblasts enclosed by a piece of plasma membrane
  20. Megakaryocytes
    formed by megakaryoblasts.  Platelets break of from these in red bone marrow and then enter the blood criculation
  21. Hemostasis
    is a sequence of responses that stops bleeding. When this is successful it prevents hemorrhage. the loss of a large amount of blood from vessels.  3 mechanisms reduce blood loss.
  22. Vascular spasm
    a mechanism that prevents blood loss. When arteries are damaged, the circular arranged smooth muscle tissue in their walls contracts immediately.  This reduces blood loss for several minutes to an hour, during which the other hemostatic mechanisms go into operation
  23. platelet plug formation
    a mechanism that prevents blood loss. Platelets contact and stick to parts of a damaged blood vessel.  Then they extend many projections that enable them to contact and interact with one another. The release of ADP makes other platelets in the area sticky and adhere to the originally activated platelets
  24. Platelet plug
    eventually the accumulation and attachment of large numbers of platelets form a mass
  25. Blood clotting
    a mechanism that prevents blood loss. if blood is drawn from the body it thickens and forms a gel.  The process of gel formation is called this
  26. serum
    a straw coloured liquid that is simply blood plasma minus the clotting proteins
Card Set
Cardiovascular system part 2
Cardiovascular system part 2