Language Acquisition

  1. What are the 5 stages of language development?
    • Babbling
    • Holophrastic
    • 2 word
    • Telelgraphic
    • Post telegraphic
  2. What is phonemic expansion?
    When babies expand the number of phonemes they use.
  3. What is phonemic contraction?
    Reducing phonemes to those used in native language.
  4. What is a proto word?
    A word that has a shared meaning between child & carer & is used consistently but is not a real word e.g. ish for dog
  5. Deletion
    When a child drops a consonant.
  6. Substitution
    When a child replaces 1 consonant with 1 that is easier to say e.g. tup rather than cup
  7. Cluster reduction
    Where there are consonant clusters a child may drop one e.g. geen for green
  8. Fis phenomenon?
    Berko & Brown (1960) A child says fis for fish but when carer says fis they know it's wrong. Children understand more phonemes than they can produce.
  9. Addition
    When a vowel is added to the end of a word e.g dogu
  10. Assimilation
    When one consonant is changed because of the influence of another one in the word e.g. tub becomes bub
  11. Reduplication
    When a phoneme is repeated e.g. moo moo for cow
  12. Voicing
    When voiceless consonants e.g. p, t, f & s are replaced by their voiced equivalents b,d, v or z e.g. zok for sock
  13. De-voicing
    When voiced consonants are replaced by their unvoiced equivalents e.g. pag for bag
  14. Intonation
    Can take a long time for children to develop up to as much as 10 years old-Cruttenden (1985)
  15. Halliday's language functions-7
    • Instrumental-I want a drink
    • Regulatory-Get me a drink
    • Interactional-Nice drink mummy
    • Personal-I like drink
    • Heuristic-What flavour is the drink?
    • Imaginative-I'd like a pink drink!
    • Representational-I'm 3
  16. What type of pragmatic features do children learn?
    Turn taking, politeness features, adjacency pairs, opening & closing sequences & non verbal comunication e.g. pitch
  17. What type of words do children learn first?
  18. What is underextension?
    When a child uses a word in a restricted way e.g. duck only for a plastic bath duck
  19. Overextension
    When a child uses the same word for more than one thing e.g. cat for all 4 legged animals
  20. Labelling
    When a child is able to call something by its correct name.
  21. Packaging
    When a child begins to understand the range of meaning a word can have e.g. bottle can mean lots of different shapes & sizes
  22. Network building
    When a child makes connections between words e.g. antonyms & synonyms
  23. Stages of speech development
    Holophrastic-Two word-Telegraphic-Post telegraphic
  24. What type of grammatical constructions can most children use by age 5?
    conjunctions, negatives, questions & inflections
  25. Stages of inflection usage-Cruttenden (1979)
    • 1-Inconsistent usage-may use an inflection such as ed correctly some of the time
    • 2-Consistent usage sometimes misapplied e.g making virtuous errors with irregular past tense forms such as I drinked
    • 3-Consistent usage-can cope with even irregular forms e.g. mice
  26. What did Berko's Wug test show? ( 1958)
    That children can use grammatical rules without being taught them.
  27. Questioning Stages
    • 1-18 months-rising intonation e.g. go walk?
    • 2-2-3 years-continue rising intonation with WH words e.g. Where tractor?
    • 3-3+ Subject-verb inversion e.g. Can I see it? Also begin to use auxilary verbs e.g. What is mummy doing?
  28. Bellugi's stages of negation
    • 1-18 months-Use no or not at start of sentences e.g. no juice
    • 2-2-3 years-Use no or not in front of verbs e.g. I no want juice
    • 3-3+ Using no or not correctly and use negative contractions e.g. can't
  29. Skinner (1957)
    Behaviourist theory-language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement
  30. Chomsky (1965)
    Language acquisition is innate. LAD inbuilt in all of us.
  31. Bruner ( 1983)
    Social interactionist theory-LASS
  32. Lenneberg ( 1967)
    Critical period hypothesis-without social interaction before age 5 language developement will be severely limited
  33. Vygotsky (1978)
    Socio-cultural theory. Private speech-when a child talks aloud to itself. Zone of Proximal Development-a child needs a caregivers input in order to interact-scaffolding
  34. Piaget (1896-1980)
    Cognitive approach-child needs to develop certain mental processes before they can progress their language development e.g. object permanence
  35. Object permanence
    A child realises that things exist even when they can't see them coincides with a big increase in vocabulary
  36. What is CDS?
    Child Directed Speech-caregivers talk in a particular way to encourage language development.
  37. Features of CDS?
    • Higher pitch
    • Rising intonation
    • Slower pace
    • Simple vocab
    • Simple sentences
    • Repetition
    • Diminuitives e.g.birdie
    • High proportion of concrete nouns
  38. What is expanding?
    • Adding extra information to a child's response e.g. Mum-What are you doing?
    • Child-playing
    • Mum-yes, you are playing with your car
  39. What is recasting?
    • Rephrasing information in a different or more correct way e.g. Child- want drink
    • Mum-Do you want a drink?
  40. What are the 2 different approaches to learning to read?
    Phonics, Look & Say
  41. Reading development stages
    • Pre-school-Can tell the story through pictures, can identify some letters
    • 5-6- Learn up to 100 high frequency words
    • Learn to read from left to right and top to bottom, Can read new words using phonic knowledge
    • 6-7 Read more fluently, recognise more words by sight, use reading strategies
    • 8+ Vocab increases, read fluently, use punctuation.
  42. How does reading develop up to age 18?
    • Become familiar with wider range of texts
    • Read to learn
    • Read for different reasons e.g. work/pleasure
    • Read critically/analytically-some people never reach this stage
    • Skim read
  43. What are the 7 writing stages?
    • Scribbling
    • Mock handwriting
    • Mock letters
    • Conventional letters
    • Invented spelling
    • Appropriate spelling
    • Correct spelling
  44. What is necessary for writing development?
    Motor skills e.g pencil grip
  45. What are Kroll's (1981) 4 stages of writing development?
    • Prepatory stage 18 months+-Basic motor skills and basics of spelling
    • Consolidation stage 6-8-Write as they speak, Use short sentences & conjunctions e.g. and, little punctuation
    • Differentiation stage 8+-aware of difference between speech & writing, understand different genres, more complex grammar, punctuation more accurate & consistent
    • Integration stage-teens-Wide vocab & accurate spelling, aware of audience & purpose, narrative skills, personal writing style
Card Set
Language Acquisition
Cards to revise language acquisition for A2 level English Language AQA B