What are the 5 stages of language development?
- 2 word
- Post telegraphic
What is phonemic expansion?
When babies expand the number of phonemes they use.
What is phonemic contraction?
Reducing phonemes to those used in native language.
What is a proto word?
A word that has a shared meaning between child & carer & is used consistently but is not a real word e.g. ish for dog
When a child drops a consonant.
When a child replaces 1 consonant with 1 that is easier to say e.g. tup rather than cup
Where there are consonant clusters a child may drop one e.g. geen for green
Berko & Brown (1960) A child says fis for fish but when carer says fis they know it's wrong. Children understand more phonemes than they can produce.
When a vowel is added to the end of a word e.g dogu
When one consonant is changed because of the influence of another one in the word e.g. tub becomes bub
When a phoneme is repeated e.g. moo moo for cow
When voiceless consonants e.g. p, t, f & s are replaced by their voiced equivalents b,d, v or z e.g. zok for sock
When voiced consonants are replaced by their unvoiced equivalents e.g. pag for bag
Can take a long time for children to develop up to as much as 10 years old-Cruttenden (1985)
Halliday's language functions-7
- Instrumental-I want a drink
- Regulatory-Get me a drink
- Interactional-Nice drink mummy
- Personal-I like drink
- Heuristic-What flavour is the drink?
- Imaginative-I'd like a pink drink!
- Representational-I'm 3
What type of pragmatic features do children learn?
Turn taking, politeness features, adjacency pairs, opening & closing sequences & non verbal comunication e.g. pitch
What type of words do children learn first?
What is underextension?
When a child uses a word in a restricted way e.g. duck only for a plastic bath duck
When a child uses the same word for more than one thing e.g. cat for all 4 legged animals
When a child is able to call something by its correct name.
When a child begins to understand the range of meaning a word can have e.g. bottle can mean lots of different shapes & sizes
When a child makes connections between words e.g. antonyms & synonyms
Stages of speech development
Holophrastic-Two word-Telegraphic-Post telegraphic
What type of grammatical constructions can most children use by age 5?
conjunctions, negatives, questions & inflections
Stages of inflection usage-Cruttenden (1979)
- 1-Inconsistent usage-may use an inflection such as ed correctly some of the time
- 2-Consistent usage sometimes misapplied e.g making virtuous errors with irregular past tense forms such as I drinked
- 3-Consistent usage-can cope with even irregular forms e.g. mice
What did Berko's Wug test show? ( 1958)
That children can use grammatical rules without being taught them.
- 1-18 months-rising intonation e.g. go walk?
- 2-2-3 years-continue rising intonation with WH words e.g. Where tractor?
- 3-3+ Subject-verb inversion e.g. Can I see it? Also begin to use auxilary verbs e.g. What is mummy doing?
Bellugi's stages of negation
- 1-18 months-Use no or not at start of sentences e.g. no juice
- 2-2-3 years-Use no or not in front of verbs e.g. I no want juice
- 3-3+ Using no or not correctly and use negative contractions e.g. can't
Behaviourist theory-language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement
Language acquisition is innate. LAD inbuilt in all of us.
Bruner ( 1983)
Social interactionist theory-LASS
Lenneberg ( 1967)
Critical period hypothesis-without social interaction before age 5 language developement will be severely limited
Socio-cultural theory. Private speech-when a child talks aloud to itself. Zone of Proximal Development-a child needs a caregivers input in order to interact-scaffolding
Cognitive approach-child needs to develop certain mental processes before they can progress their language development e.g. object permanence
A child realises that things exist even when they can't see them coincides with a big increase in vocabulary
What is CDS?
Child Directed Speech-caregivers talk in a particular way to encourage language development.
Features of CDS?
- Higher pitch
- Rising intonation
- Slower pace
- Simple vocab
- Simple sentences
- Diminuitives e.g.birdie
- High proportion of concrete nouns
What is expanding?
- Adding extra information to a child's response e.g. Mum-What are you doing?
- Mum-yes, you are playing with your car
What is recasting?
- Rephrasing information in a different or more correct way e.g. Child- want drink
- Mum-Do you want a drink?
What are the 2 different approaches to learning to read?
Phonics, Look & Say
Reading development stages
- Pre-school-Can tell the story through pictures, can identify some letters
- 5-6- Learn up to 100 high frequency words
- Learn to read from left to right and top to bottom, Can read new words using phonic knowledge
- 6-7 Read more fluently, recognise more words by sight, use reading strategies
- 8+ Vocab increases, read fluently, use punctuation.
How does reading develop up to age 18?
- Become familiar with wider range of texts
- Read to learn
- Read for different reasons e.g. work/pleasure
- Read critically/analytically-some people never reach this stage
- Skim read
What are the 7 writing stages?
- Mock handwriting
- Mock letters
- Conventional letters
- Invented spelling
- Appropriate spelling
- Correct spelling
What is necessary for writing development?
Motor skills e.g pencil grip
What are Kroll's (1981) 4 stages of writing development?
- Prepatory stage 18 months+-Basic motor skills and basics of spelling
- Consolidation stage 6-8-Write as they speak, Use short sentences & conjunctions e.g. and, little punctuation
- Differentiation stage 8+-aware of difference between speech & writing, understand different genres, more complex grammar, punctuation more accurate & consistent
- Integration stage-teens-Wide vocab & accurate spelling, aware of audience & purpose, narrative skills, personal writing style