1. What are the types of seizures?
    • Partial: Simple partial, Complex partial
    • Generalized: Absence, Generalized Tonic-Clonic, Status Epilepticus
  2. What type of seizure is Phenytoin used for?
    Generalized and Partial
  3. What is Phenytoin MOA?
    Sodium channels inhibition.
  4. How long may it take to reach a steady level for Phenytoin?
    ~5-7 days, may be up to 14 days
  5. What are the adverse effects of Phenytoin?
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    Ataxia, dizziness, diplopia, sedation, nystagmus, nausea, vomiting, impaired motor control, liver enzymes.
  6. True or false: Serum level of Phenytoin should be corrected with albumin level.
  7. What is the therapeutic range for Phenytoin?
    40-80 μmol/L
  8. Why does Phenytoin have a non-linear pharmacokinetic?
    If liver enzymes are overwhelmed, plasma levels of the drug increases disproportionately.
  9. What is Carbamazepine (Tegretol) used for?
    To prevent partial and generalized seizures, BPAD and pain.
  10. What is the MOA of Carbamazepine (Tegretol)?
    Voltage-dependent sodium channels inhibition.
  11. Onset for Carbamazepine (Tegretol)?
    4-6 hours
  12. Steady state for Carbamazepine (Tegretol)?
    3-5 days
  13. Therapeutic range for Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
    17-47 μmol/L
  14. Adverse effect of Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
    Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, dizziness, diplopia, nystagmus, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, SJS, pruritis, photosensitivity, rash.
  15. What are the uses for Valporic Acid (Depakene)/ Divalporex (Epival)?
    Broad spectrum antidepressant, BPAD, migranes
  16. Valporic Acid (Depakene)/ Divalporex (Epival)
    Enhances GABA-mediated inhibition
  17. Valporic Acid (Depakene)/ Divalporex (Epival) steady state?
    3-5 days
  18. Valporic Acid (Depakene)/ Divalporex (Epival) therapeutic range?
    350-700 μmol/L
  19. Valporic Acid (Depakene)/ Divalporex (Epival)
    adverse effects?
    STT? NV W H
    Sedation, tremor, thrombocytopenia, nausea, vomiting, weight gain, hair loss.
  20. Ethosuximide (Zarontin) uses?
    absence seizures
  21. Ethosuximide (Zarontin) MOA
    calcium channels inhibition
  22. Ethosuximide (Zarontin) adverse effects
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    Nausea, vomiting, sedation, rash, nightmares.
  23. Lamotrigine (Lamictal) uses:
    partial seizure, adjunct in generalized seizure
  24. Lamotrigine (Lamictal) MOA
    sodium channels inhibition
  25. Lamotrigine (Lamictal) side effects
    CNS SE common
  26. Topiramate (Topimax) use
    adjunctive therapy for partial seizures
  27. Topiramate (Topimax) MOA
    multiple: blocks voltage-dependent sodium channels, enhances GABA activity
  28. Topiramate (Topimax) SE
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    impaired cognition, weight loss, kidney stones
  29. Oxcarbazepine (trileptal) use
    Partial and secondary GTC (Generalized Tonic-Clonic)
  30. Oxcarbazepine (trileptal) MOA
    sodium channels
  31. Oxcarbazepine (trileptal) se
    like carbamazepine
  32. Levetiracetam (Keppra) use
    Broad spectrum
  33. Levetiracetam (Keppra) MOA
  34. Levetiracetam (Keppra) elimination
    renal only
  35. Levetiracetam (Keppra) drug interaction
  36. Lacosamide (Vimpat) use
    adjunct in partial seizure
  37. Lacosamide (Vimpat) MOA
    sodium channel slow activation
  38. Phenobarbital use
    generalized and partial seizure as well as refractory status epilepticus.
  39. Phenobarbital MOA
    binds to GABA receptor
  40. Phenobarbital SE
    Hang over effect
  41. T or F: Patients on Phenobarbital can develop a tolerance/dependence
  42. Benzodiazepines MOA
    enhances GABA mediated inhibition
  43. Benzodiazepines common agents
    clobazam, diazepam, lorazepam, clonazepam.
  44. name 2 Benzodiazepines that are use in status epilepticus and are able to cross the BBB when given parenterally
    lorazepam and diazepam
  45. what are positive symptoms?
    • things that are considered extra. aggression, lack of sleep, etc...
    • can be treated within a day or two.
  46. the new antipsychotic drugs associated with lower rates of ______ but higher rates of ___ ___
    EPS; weight gain
  47. what are the target symptoms of antipsychotics?
    combativeness, hallucinations, delusions, insight.
  48. what are antipsychotics used for?
    psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, mania, delirium, adjunct in alzheimer's.
  49. what are the target receptors of antipsychotics?
    D2, muscarinic, alpha-1 recptors, histamine, 5ht2 receptors.
  50. Olanzapine (Zeprexa) is used for
    Mania, schizophrenia, BPAD
  51. Available forms of Olanzapine (Zeprexa)
    oral tabs, RDT, IM inj
  52. Uses for Quetiapine (Seroquel)
    Mania, schizophrenia, BPAD, delirium, dementia, agitation, anxiety
  53. forms of Quetiapine (Seroquel)
    oral tabs (immediate and xr)
  54. which Antipsychotic has the least EPS
    Quetiapine (Seroquel)
  55. Uses for Risperidone (Risperdal)
    schizophrenia, BPAD, delirium, dementia, agitation.
  56. forms of Risperidone (Risperdal)
    oral (tabs, M-tab, liquid) depot inj
  57. which antiphyschotic has the highest risk for eps?
    Risperidone (Risperdal)
  58. Ziprasidone (Zeldox) uses
    schizophrenia, BPAD, agitation
  59. Ziprasidone (Zeldox) forms
  60. Clozapine (Clorazil) biggest important SE
    agranulocytosis, seisures
  61. what is NMS?
    life threatening reaction associated with use of antipsychotics. symptoms are: muscle rigidity, hypertermia, autonomic dysfunction, altered consciousness. treat with anticholinergic agents.
  62. T or F: Overdose is not too much of a concern with benzodiazepines.
Card Set
Antiepileptic drugs, Antipsychotic drugs, Anxiolytics/Hypnotics, Antidepressant drugs