H English 10: Unit 2

  1. metafiction and example
    • fictional writing that self-consciously and systematically draws attention to itself as fiction
    • purpose: to pose questions about the relationship between fiction and reality
  2. anecdote
    a self-contained, illustrative glimpse of a character or place
  3. juxtaposition
    in literature, the placement of dissimilar, contrasting words or images in a passage of writing that forces the reader to make a connection, to draw an inference
  4. denotative meaning
    the literal, dictionary meaning
  5. connotative meaning
    associated meaning
  6. diction
    word choice
  7. allusion
    reference to something historical, mythological, from literature, the news, politics, etc.
  8. tone
    attitude the speaker takes towards subject (mysterious, sarcastic)
  9. mood
    what the reader feels (any emotion)
  10. allegory
    story, where the characters represent some kind of abstract quality
  11. imagery
    details relating to the five senses
  12. list poem
    contains all concrete things and all the five senses
  13. foils
    two characters who are dissimilar. Through this comparison, we know something about the character
  14. soliloquy
    one character alone on the stage speaking
  15. outline of Shakespearean plays
    • I: conflict (problem), characters, setting 
    • II: plot complications
    • III: climax
    • IV: falling action
    • V: resolution
  16. blank verse
    unrhymed iambic pentameter
  17. iambic
    pattern of unstressed-stressed syllables
  18. pentameter
    5 beats per line (one beat= stressed and unstressed syllable)
  19. what is the stance of Rome at the beginning of act IV
    Atony, Octavius, and Lepidus now rule as a triumvirate over Rome
  20. why do Brutus and Cassius not get along
    Brutus accuses Cassius of accepting bribes
  21. who coined "tragic hero"
  22. characteristics of people who are tragic heros
    • had admirable qualities
    • had some kind of superiority (something to lose)
    • tragic flaw: good quality carried to an extreme (directly related to character's downfall)
    • tragic realization: understands what he's lost and why
    • catharsis in the audience
  23. catharsis
    audience's reaction to a tragic hero's downfall, emotional reaction; "what a waste"
  24. hubris
    excessive pride; an example of a tragic flaw
  25. "You blocks, you stones, you wroth than senseless things!/O you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome,/Knew you not Pompey?"
    • Marellus speaks to the crowd and says that they are easily swayed. Says that they loved Pompey, but now they love Caesar
    • significance: shows the lack of credibility in the crowd, shows that they are easily swayed and emotional
  26. "when Caesar says, 'do this, it is performed'"
    • Mark Atony is talking to Caesar
    • significance: shows that Atony is really dedicated and takes commands easily
  27. "beware the ides of march"
    • soothsayer in the crowd talking to Caesar
    • significance: Caesar dismisses it, is unafraid of risk, and invulnerable due to his power
  28. "into what dangers would you lead me/ that you would have me seek into myself/ for that which is not in me?"
    • Brutus is talking to Cassius
    • Caesar comes back from Spain, Cassius says that Brutus needs admiration too
    • significance: shows beginning of Cassius' persuasion into turning Brutus against Caesar, shows Cassius' care for Brutus by saying that he should be admired too
  29. "men at some time are masters of their fates/the fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars/but in ourselves, that we are underlings"
    • Cassius talking to Brutus about Caesar killing pompey
    • significance: says that Caesar is determining his own fate and that Brutus has the power to do so too (Cassius is comforting Brutus)
  30. "Yond has a lean and hungry look/ he thinks too much: such men are dangerous"
    • Caesar talking to Antony about Cassius
    • significance: Caesar fears Cassius' character, foreshadows Caesar's death, he's suspicious of Cassius
  31. "they hooted, clapped their chopt hands and threw up their sweaty nightcaps and uttered such a deal of stinking brath because Caesar refused the crown, that it had, almost, choked Caesar"
    • Casca is talking to Brutus
    • significance: Casca is disappointed because Caesar didn't accept crown, shows that the crowd is easily swayed, beginning of conflict
  32. "he hath the falling sickness"
    • Casca explains that Caesar refused the crown and then had epilepsy symptoms, Brutus identifies this as the "falling sickness" or epilepsy/seizures
    • significance: explains Caesar's epilepsy as he refused the crown
  33. "poor man, I know he would not be a wolf/ but that the Romans are but sheep"
    • Cassius talks about Caesar to Casca
    • significance: weird things are happening, thinks that the crowd needs a shepherd because they're dumb
  34. "well Brutus, thou art noble; yet I see/thy honorable mettle may be wrought/ from that which it is disposed"
    • Cassius is talking about Brutus to himself
    • significance: Cassius says that Brutus is good but can be manipulated
  35. "I know no personal cause to spurn at him/ But for the general"
    • Brutus' soliloquy
    • significance: believes Caesar must be killed for Rome, shows that Brutus' motives are for the Roman republic and the people
  36. "Let's kill him boldly, but not wrathfully/ Let's carve him as a dish fit for the gods/ not hew his as a carcass fit for hounds"
    • Brutus speaks to conspirators
    • significance: shows Brutus' faith in the conspirators and their cause's nobility
  37. "for he can do no more than Caesar's arm/ when Caesar's head is off"
    • Brutus speaks to Cassius
    • significance: Brutus says that it isn't worth it to kill Atony because he is powerless without Caesar, they underestimate Atony
  38. "I have made strong proof of my constancy/ giving myself a voluntary wound/ here in my thigh"
    • Portia talks to Brutus
    • significance: Portia is desperate to get information from Brutus, cuts herself in the thigh to show toughness
  39. "when beggars die there are no comets seen/ the heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princess"
    • Calpurnia talks to Caesar after having a bad dream
    • significance: Calpurnia tries to warn Caesar about his death by saying that comet is a sign and that his life matters
  40. "cowards die many times before their deaths/ the valiant never taste of death but once"
    • Caesar talks in response to Calpurnia
    • significance: Caesar thinks it is better to be brave and go through risk than be passive
  41. "this dream is all amiss interpreted/ it was a vision fair and fortunate"
    • Decius speaks to Caesar
    • significance: Decius persuades to go to the Senate House, Caesar choses his status over his wife's worry
  42. "I am as constant as the Northern Star/ Of whose true-fixed and resting quality/ There is no fellow in the firmament"
    • Caesar talks to the conspirators at the capital
    • significance: shows Caesar's ego and his overconfidence
  43. "Et tu Brute? Then fall Caesar"
    • Caesar speaks to Brutus
    • significance: And you too, Brutus? Caesar's last betrayal by his friend
  44. "stoop Romans, stoop/ And let us bathe ourselves in Caesar's blood"
    • Brutus speaks to the rest of the conspirators after Caesar's murder
    • significance: shows that Brutus is gross, shows the fulfillment of Calpurnia's dream, Brutus is trying to be noble and thinks that he is a hero
  45. "O pardon me, thou bleeding piece of Earth/ That I am meek and gentle with these butchers"
    • Atony is talking to Caesar's body
    • significance: Atony vows on Caesar's corpse that he will avenge the killers
  46. "so are they all, all honorable men"
    • Atony talks to the crowd in sarcasm
    • significance: shows that he thinks they are dishonorable people, the beginning of his mean speech against the crowd which betrays Brutus and Cassius (they shouldn't have trusted him)
  47. what does Brutus say during his speech in act IV
    defends the murder of Caesar by saying that Caesar ignored the ides of March warning, and that because the Romans are supporting dishonest people, they are unable to be generous and honorable
  48. how does Portia die and when
    suicide act IV
  49. when Brutus and Cassius make up what do they do
    • they plan their strategy to kill Caesar
    • Cassius wants to wait for Atony and Lepidus so his army can rest 
    • Brutus decides that they should march forward to Philippi
  50. who does the ghost of Caesar haunt and when, what does he say
    Brutus, act IV, says that Brutus will see him at Philippi
  51. how and when does Cassius die
    • Cassius sends his slave to check up on the war, and the slave reports that Titinius has been taken
    • Cassius feels despair because he feels responsible so he asks the slave to kill him in exchange for freedom, and the slave kills him
    • the slave was mistaken because Titinius was just being lifted in celebration of victory
  52. what does Brutus ask of his men and what is their reaction
    • asks for peace, silence, for them to listen to him, tells them to kill him
    • they are surprised and taken aback, they say that he shouldn't die
  53. how does Brutus die
    tells Strato to hold out his sword, and he runs into it
  54. how does Antony paraphrase Brutus?
    calls him a noble Roman, was honest, common good, joined the public, etc.
  55. how is Brutus a tragic hero?
    • had admirable qualities; wanted a fair government, fears too much power, loyal to Caesar and Rome at the same time
    • had some kind of superiority: powerful public figure, military leader, good friend, etc.
    • had a tragic flaw: rigid idealism, tries to have too much justice, too trusting. 
    • had a tragic realization
  56. examples of Brutus' tragic flaw
    • too trusting: 1. Trusted that Atony would not blame the conspirators at Caesar's funeral, but Atony did, got Brutus into trouble. 2. Atony ends up turning against Brutus by sarcastically calling him an "honorable man" and defending Caesar as somebody who was not corrupt and shouldn't have been killed. Upsets the crowd by showing Caesar's body and then gets everybody to hate Brutus and Cassius 3. Trusted Cassius too much and Cassius just used Brutus to get him against Caesar 
    • too fixated on idealism: truly believed that Caesar had to be killed in order to save Rome's government
  57. why does Brutus decide to kill himself
    he knew that his army was defeated, knew that he would be captured, feels remorse for killing Caesar
  58. who coined ethos, pathos, and logos
  59. pathos and example
    • emotional appeal
    • when Calpurnia tries to scare Caesar out of attending the ceremony by describing it as dangerous and sharing her nightmare
  60. ethos and example
    • establishing/crediting character of a product
    • Caesar tries to convince Calpurnia that he should attend the Senate House because the gods want him to, otherwise they will think he is a coward
  61. logos and example
    • appeal to logic/reason, straight forward description of the product's use, how it works, what it does
    • Calpurnia points out that it does not matter when beggars die (there are no comets seen), but it matters when princes die (the heavens blaze forth)
  62. what are some of the weird things that Casca reports
    fire dropping out of the sky, lion went by without annoying him, night bird was seen at noon
  63. how are Cassius and Brutus foils of each other
    • Cassius has motives that are made to benefit himself, whereas Brutus has motives that are truly made to benefit Rome
    • e.g. Cassius wishes to kill Atony because he is afraid that Atony will avenge them, but Brutus has sympathy and shows that he just wants to save the republic
  64. what three things does Atony ask from the conspirators
    • wants to bring the body
    • wants to speak at the funeral
    • wants to have an explanation for Caesar's death
  65. how do Brutus and Cassius respond to Atony's requests from the conspirators
    • agree to let him bring the body to the casket
    • Brutus wants to let him speak but Cassius does not
  66. rules that Brutus gives Atony for his speech
    • don't blame the conspirators
    • don't speak good of Caesar
    • speak at the same place
    • tell them that he got permission to do this
  67. what kind of persuasive techniques did Brutus use at the funeral oration and examples?
    • loved Rome more than Caesar - logos
    • men can live free instead of being slaves - pathos
    • says that Caesar was a good guy - ethos 
    • asks rhetorical questions, uses repetition/sarcasm
  68. climax of Caesar play
    Cassius orders Pindarus to kill him, shows that the conspirators are unable to keep Rome a republic and they are no longer in control
  69. foreshadowing in Caesar play
    • the storm in Rome (lightning and thunder), the lions, soothsayer's warnings, Calpurnia's nightmare
    • these suggest that bad things will happen to Caesar (murder) and Rome will not be functional
Card Set
H English 10: Unit 2