1. Widening of the War
    • a.      Sides looked for new allies
    •                                                               i.      Ottoman Empire to Germany, to which Russia, Great Britain and France declared war on
    •                                                             ii.      British Empire tried to open a Balkan front by landing forces at Gallipli, the entry of Bulgaria into the war for the Central Powers (Germany, AH, Ottomans) and disasters caused retreat
  2. Italians
                                                                  i.      Italians entered Allied Side after France and Britain promised Austrian territory, but soon required assistance from the Allies
  3. Global Conflict
    • a.      A Global Conflict occurred due to major powers and their controlled colonial empires
    •                                                               i.      Middle East: Brit TE Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) incited Arab princes to revolt against Ottomans
    •                                                             ii.      Brits in Egypt and Mesopotamia destroyed rest of Ottoman Empire in Middle East and mobilized forces from India, Australia, and New Zealand
  4. Allies
    •                                                               i.      Allies took advantage of Germany’s preoccupation in Europe and lack of naval strength to take German colonies in Africa
    • 1.      War was long and first Brit shots of WWI were fired in Africa when British African troops moved into German colony of Togoland
    • 2.      In E. Africa, German Commander Colonel Pal von Lettow-Vorbeck kept African troops fighting several campaigns for four years, surrendering two weeks after the armistice ended the war in Europe
  5. In Africa
    • a.      In Africa, Allied governments drew mainly on African soldiers, but some states, recruited African troops to fight in Europe
    •                                                               i.      French: 170k West African soldiers, many of whom fought in trenches on Western Front
    •                                                             ii.      African troops also used as occupation forces in German Rhineland at the end of the war
    •                                                           iii.      About 80k were killed/ injured in Europe due to unfamiliarity to terrain and climate
    •                                                           iv.      Used for labor; East Africa: both sides drafted African laborers as carriers for armies; more than 100k died of disease
  6. Immediate impact
    a.      Immediate impact of WWI in Africa: extension of colonial rule since Germany’ African colonies were transferred to winning powers, especially British and French
  7. a.      Unintended consequence for Europeans
    •                                                               i.      African soldiers who’d gone to war for the Allies, especially those who left Africa and fought in Europe, became politically aware and began to advocate political and social equality
    •                                                             ii.      Educated African elites, who’d helped colonial overlords iin elisting local peoples to fight, did so thinking they’d win citizenship and new political chances after the war
    • 1.      Seeing it was bad, they involved selves in anticolonial movements
  8. East Asia and the Pacific
    •                                                               i.      In east Asia and the Pacific, Japan joined the Allies on Aug 23, 1914 to take German territories in Asia
    • 1.      Took German land in China and in Pacific; and New Zealand and Australia joined
  9. Entry of US
    •                                                               i.      Tried to remain neutral, but couldn’t
    •                                                             ii.      Cause grew out of naval conflict between Germany and Great Britain
    • 1.      Battle of Jutland was only time Brit and German naval forces fought; and Germans won
  10. Britain used
    •                                                               i.      Britain used superior naval power to impose naval blockade on Germany
    • 1.      Gremany counterblockaded using submarines
    • a.      1915: Germans declare area around British Isles a war zone and threatened to torpedo ships
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      American protested to German sinking of passenger liners, especially the Lusitania, when more than one hundred Americans lost lives, forced German government to modify its policy of unrestricted sub warfare and to briefly suspend unrestricted sub warfare a year later
  11. Jan 1917
    •                                                               i.      Jan 1917: tried to end deadlock; so, Germans returned to unrestricted sub warfare
    • 1.      German naval officers convinced Emperor William II that using unrestricted sub warfare could starve Brits into submission within 5 months
    • a.      Emperor worried about Brits, but told not to worry
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      The Brits would starve before Americans could act
  12. Return
    •                                                               i.      Return to unrestricted sub warfare: US in war o Apr 6, 1917, giving Allied Powers a boost since 1917 wasn’t in their favor
    • 1.      Allied offensives defeated; Italians smashed; and in November, the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia led to Russia’s withdrawal from the war
    • b.      The cause of the Central Powers looked favorable, although war weariness in the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, AH, and Germany was beginning to take its toll
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